Table 1.

Chi-squared of parent engagement by income. 

EngagementLow IncomeHigh IncomeTotal
    Low Engaged808
    High Engaged202040

Note: p<.05*, p<.01**, p<.001***

The low-income households and low engagement had a mean of 8. The high-income households with low engagement had 0. In regards to high engagement, both low-income households and high-income households had a mean of 20. According to the chi-square results (4.95), there is no significant difference between the means. Therefore, income has no influence on child engagement.