This is an important terminological/conceptual distinction to grasp, as posts and pages serve radically different functions. A post is an article that shows up in the chronology of your blog. In other words, posts appear in your blog, most recent at the top of the page. By default, your home page is your blog where you can publish numerous posts.
A page is what most folks may be more familiar with. This is a static space that is not part of the chronological logic of the blog. A page sits outside of this inverted time line, and often features more static content like information about the site, the author, resume, a syllabus, readings, etc.