The beginnings of a renaissance in Sevilla was triggered by the Ibero-American
Exposition of 1929. This exposition occurred on May 9, 1929 and ended June 21, 1930 showcasing the similarities held between Spain, Latin America, the United States, Portugal and Brazil. The goal was to improve relations between the attending countries. The Ibero-american Exposition coincided with the Barcelona International Exhibition of 1929, together the two expositions made up the General Spanish Expositions. During the exposition the gardens gifted by Duke de Montpensier were renewed.
During the Spanish Civil War from 1936 to 1939 the Nationalists had captured the area, preserving much of the city. The Spanish Civil war was triggered by an uprising in Seville on July 18 1936 which failed in many regions located in Andalusian cities but succeeded in the regions of Cordoba, Granada, Cadiz, and in the capital city of Seville. In Seville a city garrison ,which was led by nationalist General Gonzalo Queipo de Llano, occupied the city and carried out a bloody repression. In August 1936 the Nationalists led by Llano began their march to Madrid from Seville.
The Nationalist Uprising in Seville would last from July 18,1936 till July 25, 1936. A group of army officers from the Spanish Army would attempt to overthrow the Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic. The goal of their coup was to seize control of the main cities in the country, Seville would be one of these.
The Nationalist coup in Seville would be led by Quiepo de Llano. According to Llano he and a small unit of 130 soldiers and 15 civilians had managed to seize the Seville with him personally arresting the Republican general Villa-Abrile after convincing the republican garrison to join the coup. The Seville coup was organized by José Cuesta Moreneo, chief of staff of Seville, who struggled to find participants for the coup since most of the men were on summer leave.
The Coup in Seville began on July 18 when Llano and some of his supporters arrested Villa-Abrille as well as a colonel of the 6th Remient named Manuel Allengi, who had refused to join the uprising. Members of the artillery regiment joined the uprising and bombed the gobierno civil or the civil government. The Civil governor would surrender and join the uprising after Quiepo de Llano promised to spare his life, after the surrender the assault guards and police were executed.
After the coup all members of the Republican parties and the leftist parties were rounded up by Nationalists and imprisoned. The entire operation was organized by captain Diz Criado, a Spanish infantry officer. Many Republican supporters were executed after the coup in retaliation for the 13 nationalists that had been executed during the coup. Llano sent a column of Civil Guards, Falangists, requetes and soldiers to occupy other towns in the province; this army would be financed by the wealthy landowners. Many prisoners would be sent to the columns in Seville to be executed. The rebel actions in Seville were key to a strategic victory .
Investigating Repression During the Spanish Civil War: Seville, 1936 | Penn CURF, University of Pennsylvania, 2022, https://curf.upenn.edu/project/marron-sarah-investigating-repression-during-spanish-civilwar-seville-1936.
Nelson, Richard. “The Spanish Civil War Begins – Archive, July 1936.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 14 July 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/world/from-the-archive-blog/2021/jul/14/panish-civilwar-begins-july-1936.
“Pavilions of the 1929 Ibero-American Exhibition.” Turismo De La Provincia De Sevilla, 2022, https://www.turismosevilla.org/en/what-see-and-do/heritage/monuments/pavilions-1929-ibero-american-exhibition#:~:text=The%20Ibero%2DAmerican%20Exhibition%20took,United%20States%2C%20Portugal%20and%20Brazil.
Payne, Stanley G. The Spanish Civil War. Cambridge University Press, 2013. https://artsandculture.google.com/entity/ibero-american-exposition-of-1929/m02f1t2?hl=en
“Seville and the Expo of 1929.” Seville and the Expo of 1929 | Spain.info in English, Travel Safe, 2022, https://www.spain.info/en/activities/seville-expo-1929/.
The Spanish civil war begins – archive, 1936 https://www.theguardian.com/world/from-the-archive-blog/2021/jul/14/panish-civil-war-begins-july-1936