An in-depth discussion of John Hattie's "Visible Learning"Posts RSS Comments RSS
Christopher on Mar 1st 2011 at 11:41 am Teacher-Student Relationship and Expectations
31 responses so far
I have to agree that it is best to not get judgments from the teachers our students had the previous year. Hattie says that labeling students has an effect size of 0.6 within the text, but in appendix b Hattie states that not labeling the students has an effect size of 0.6. This means that labeling can harm students, but it also can increase students achievement. The group talked about how listening to the judgments of other teachers can cause us to think one thing about a student, but that student could be the smartest in the class. I would have to say that the reason Hattie has the same effect size for labeling and not labeling has to do with the label that is given to the student. As teachers, we have to be very cautious about labeling a student as something just because it is what we think of them.
When it comes to having an effective classroom, expectations need to be established and communicated by the teacher. The expectations needs to be explicit, clear, and measurable because students need to know what they can do and what they teacher wants them to be able to accomplish during the school year. Teachers need to also communicate expectations to the parents as well because they will be aware of what is expected from their child. Also, this opens up the communication between the parent and teacher so parents can communicate their expectations for their child.
Towards the end of the video, these students discussed how having high expectations for our students is a part of teacher-student relationships. As we have discussed in our round tables week after week, setting high expectations is very critical for the achievement of our students. But along will setting these expectations, we have to make these expectations known to the students. And we as teacher’s can’t just tell our students I expect you to be able to do this. Instead, we need to build relationships with our students, encourage them to reach our expectations. As discussed in the book, teacher-student relationships (d=0.72) has several variables that are included in forming these relationships. Some of these variables include empathy, warmth, encouragement of high order thinking, and encouragement of learning. All of these variables of forming teacher-students relationships will also help both us and our students reach these high expectations that we have set for our students.
High and attainable expectations are important for us to set for our students. Building relationships with students implies agency, efficacy, respect by the teacher for what the child brings to the classroom. In the video many of the girls talked about not making preconceived notions of students. Hattie advocates for a person centered classroom. Hattie claims, “improve teacher-student relations by demonstrating that they care for each individual learner and their achievement.” On the other hand, negative teacher-student relationship can cause problems in the classroom. Not only will the student not achieve to their full potential, there will most likely be disruptions from these students. In conclusion, a successful teacher-student relationship will yield an effect size of d=0.72 which is incredibly high.
Hattie cautions having prior judgments about students. This group discussed going to previous year teachers to get their opinions of that student. As teachers, this can be problematic if those opinions given are subjective versus objective. I agree with the group in looking at a student’s cumulative folder. In behavior management, we use this as our first step in an FBA, archival records. Getting information from a student’s folder gives objective information: how many referrals, grades, etc. This provides a different way to get to know our students.
High and attainable expectations for students are important for us to set for our students. However, we should make these expectations after we get to understand our students. In the video many of the girls talked about not making preconceived notions of students. It is my position that teacher-student relationships and high expectations are important for student achievement. Student achievement is greatly affected by positive teacher-student relationships. A negative teacher-student relationship can cause problems in the classroom and ultimately discourage the student from doing well and enjoying school. Students need to be held to high expectations in tandem with the teacher-student relationships. Expectations must be given after learning and understanding the student rather than assuming from the behavior or success of the child in previous years. If teachers develop a positive relationship with students and set high expectations, student’s achievement will be affected in a positive manner.
Teachers having high expectations is a start to building the strong teacher-student relationships that boost achievement. Teacher-student relationships have an effect size of .72, which is high. When students feel comfortable in the classroom and feel like they can communicate any issues they may have with the teacher, it will help them to want to come to school. If students don’t reach this comfort level, they will not want to attend school. It is not possible to reach these high levels of achievement if the student is not in school to learn the material in the first place.
High expectations have an effect size of .43, also high. High expectations should include those of the student, those of the parents at home, and those of the teacher in the classroom. Placing high expectations on all of the people involved will ultimately encourage the student to reach challenging, and high achievement goals.
I talked a lot about this is my position statement paper for this chapter. Developing strong teacher relationships has a huge effect size compared to the current emphasis of content knowledge, especially at Virginia schools in which you must be a Liberal Studies major to graduate qualifying for teaching licensure. If teacher prep programs focus classes on how to build teacher-student relationships there will be a higher effect on student achievement rather than focusing on teacher subject matter knowledge. At Longwood we have several classes that talk about student teacher relationships but very little compared to the amount of content knowledge that we cover from our gen-eds and our liberal studies foundation and throughout our teacher prep classes. Teacher-student relationships should be person-centered which has the highest relationships between achievement outcomes, that is where the focus should be.
Having high expectations for your students shows that you care about them and their education. Teachers need to have high expectations for their students to try to achieve. This leads into their relationship with the students. If the teacher does not have a good relationship with a student, they are less likely to set high expectations for that student. It is important for both the teacher and the student to know what these expectations are and to work as a team to achieve these goals. When the students have a good relationship with their teacher, they are less likely to have resistant behavior in class, and more likely to want to learn from their teacher. These positive teacher-student relationships are a key factor in a student having a successful year.
It’s my position that expectations are very valuable in education and have a lot of power behind it. The overall meta analysis for the effect of teacher expectations on student success is d = 0.43 (Hattie, 2009). As Hattie talks about in the text book, expectations have a self-fulfilling prophecy, this relates back to the “Matthew effect” which is stated on page 41. This is the idea that the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. With these types of expectations, educators can affect the outcome of their students.
In reference to the “cum file” I would like to back up that statement. The girl who referenced the cum file was correct in her assumption that we as teachers do come up with rationales for why a certain student is performing or behaving a certain way. To back up that statement, we can use the effect of expectations. Expectations are a powerful tool for predicting how well a student will perform, we often use a cum file to come up with that prediction.
This also relates back to a video I watched in Chapter 5 about giving a rationale for why students are not receiving particular grades and often times it is blamed on something personal the student is going through or even their disability. When educators set lower standards for students because they are at a lower level, the student will perform lower because they are in agreement that is the best they can achieve.
Building a positive relationship with your students creates efficacy and allows what the student brings from home to be recognized in a positive way in the classroom. Teacher-student relationships have an effect size of d=0.72. Teachers sometimes have a preconceived view of a student, but if we can consciously make an effort to have a clean slate with that student, they can be successful. Teachers should have high expectations for all of their students, but not the same expectations for each student. Every student will not be on the same ability level. Teachers need to set their expectations according to the student’s instructional level. If an expectation is set too high or too low, the student will fail.
I also did my paper on student-teacher relationships. I loved the link they made about expectations and student-teacher relationships. The teacher’s expectations are determined by the kind of relationship that the student has with the teacher. The notion of teacher expectations makes me think of parent expectations and how important it is to set expectations with the student. The student knowing what expectations a teacher has for them is important in the academic success of the student.
Teacher expectations is something that we as teachers can learn to control and make sure that we are using expectations in a positive way. One of the girls in this video made me think. She said that just because a student might be known as a troubled child or have a negative image, does not necessarily mean that the student cannot perform well. The reason this made me think so much is because I believe that it is not only important to find out from teachers how students behaved or performed in the classroom but we also need to investigate when students were demonstrating certain behaviors and why. Not only getting thier previous test scores and assessments but digging deeper to find out if it was an environmental issue or not. In our discussion of this chapter we discussed how if teachers use acceleration, then the students will perform better and it can help teachers see the positive effects. Teachers will be able to physically see that students are capable of learning and succeeding.
Teachers expectations of students have an effect size of d=0.43. Students who know their teachers have low expectations will inevitably meet accept those low expectations. Because these teachers only know these students as poor students, they consequently do not put in the effort to challenge these students academically, and thus because their poor reputation is constantly following them, these students never get the opportunity to prove that they can be good students and, instead, perform the only way they know how to: poorly. The labeling of students, both within the classroom and outside of it, is unjust in providing such students with the opportunity to pursue higher goals in academic, as well as social, settings. They should not be told that their teachers have low expectations of them because they will attempt to realize the expectations and create a self-fulfilling prophecy
I loved how one of the girls stated that we need to not have preconceived notions of students. It happens all too often that teachers base student expectations off of students SES or looks. If teachers have a high expectation of student achievement then students can live up to that expectation and reach higher for those goals. High expectation challenges students and shows that the teacher is invested in their student’s success. The idea of interpersonal expectancies works negatively as well. If a student has low expectations from their teacher then they will live up to that low expectation. The teacher is cheating the student of achievements all based on expectations. High expectations relate to teacher-student relationships as the expectations need to be verbalized by the teacher. Expectations are explicit and then students are free to be challenged and will have greater student achievement.
Teacher often but too much emphasize on labeling and the Matthew Effect. They will be quick to make a judgement or down a child for what his/her past has shown. This action does not postively effect student achievment and can potentially harm a child’s self-confidence as well as the expectations the teacher puts on her students. Teacher expectations have an effect size of d=0.43. This data shows the importance of not lowing any expectations on a student just based on labels he/she may have coming in.
It was interesting how one person said as teachers we need to make a conscious effort to get rid of labels and not have pre-conceived expectations about our students. I definitely agree with that statement. Everything we do as teachers should require some conscious effort on our parts so that students get the best instruction and delivery possible. Teachers cannot base their expectations of students on what students did before coming to their classes because achievement can change. Students will strive for goals that others place on them because their mind sets are if my teacher does not expect more of me then why should I? Therefore, teachers need to make sure they have the same expectations for all students and make an effort to spend equal time and attention on every student instead of just a select few.
Running with the theme of labeling, this also ties back to chapter four where Hattie discusses the data on gender and ethnicity. Both results yielded very low effect sizes, but have been factored into the assumptions and labels we put on students. Our opinion of a student holds more power than we can imagine. With the effect size of (d=0.61), our labels have a direct effect on student’s academic achievement; if they are not positive labels then they will suffer for it. It’s very important that a teacher allows his or her students to enter the classroom on a clean slate so that the student has a chance to succeed. While prior success does have an effect size of (d=0.67) but past failures are not the student’s fault, the instruction failed them. So as they walk through your classroom door, its time to give them strong, evidence-based instruction that will allow them to succeed and grow.
Teachers set expectations for their students based on what others have told them about a particular students, based on the student’s cumulative file, or based on previous encounters with that student. After reading this information, I thought about how the labeling theory can really hinder or help a student’s academic performance. If a teacher is told that one of their students has barely passed the last grade and has major behavior issues, the teacher will set low expectations for that student and may not challenge them as much. Whereas on the other hand, a teacher who has heard wonderful things about a student may challenge that student more, call on them more frequently, as well as not grade their papers as hard because that child is smart and can do no wrong. Basing your expectations on word of mouth or on previous years of schooling may hinder a child if they are low achievers or may help a child if they have this preconceived notion of being a high achiever who has everything together. Teachers need to stop making expectations before getting to know their students because expectations has an effect size of 0.43 and if we continue to make preconceived notions, we could end up hurting the child.
Research has shown that teachers make so many judgements towards students. This discussion made so many great points in why teachers have to try to not have preconceived notions about our students. It’s important as a future educator to not give any biased opinions towards students in the classroom – we give these opinions and labels towards students without any thought or base our assumptions of students on prior knowledge given by previous teachers, simply looking at their cumulative files, or looking at personal attributes of a child. Once teachers set a certain label on a child, we immediately set low expectations for that child. Therefore, as teachers, we need to avoid labeling students and set high expectations for all students in the beginning of the year in order to increase student achievement and challenge our students within the classroom.
It is important for teachers to not have preconceived notions about students. Some teachers look at what students that have and will think of what they have heard from other teachers who have had the student in the past. This however does not necessarily how the student will act for that teacher. The teacher should get to know all students without bias. This not only gives the students a chance to change, it also gives the teacher a chance to show students who they are and eliminate some behavior problems.
It is interesting to think about how we have to make an effort to not have preconceived notions about the children who are going to be in our class, but it is all too easy to have those preconceived notions. We, as teachers, have to learn not to make judgments about students, especially before they have come to our class. This can become difficult when you already know the student or have spoken to a teacher who previously had the student in their class. Teacher need to make a conscious effort not to judge their students or have ideas about how their student is going to be behave or achieve in their class before they have even had the child as a student.
This was a great discussion. Teachers should not form preconceived ideas about students thus setting unrealistic expectations. Every student should be given the opportunity to excel in the classroom and challenged to the fullest of their knowledge. Teacher-student relationships has such a high effect size of .72. As Hattie (2009) states, teachers should accept their students culture and home life and let them be recognized in the classroom. The teacher should show care and listen to the students and their needs.
I really like the conversation about how teachers make opinions on students based on heresy from previous teachers, their cumulative files, or parent involvement. We go in to the year with preconceived notions on how we assume the students will do from these labels. As teacher’s we are to be focusing on student’s strengths and abilities to help them be successful academically. As bullying becomes a big subject in school the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (http://www.clemson.edu/olweus/) is being used in school systems. This program is to decrease the amount of bullying in schools. For it to be successful, it is vital that students have a positive relationship with their teachers. If the teacher has preconceived notions about a student that are negative, it may be hard to establish a positive teacher-student relationship. It is important that teachers keep an open mind and not “label” their students or have low expectations for students.
This discussion was very interesting. It is important as teachers especially in special education to go through our future students IEPs to see what accomodations they need, etc. What we as PROFESSIONALS need to do is not judge our students before they enter the classroom based on “warnings of the previous teachers”. We need to set high (yet achieve-able) expectations for ALL of our students. By using effective classroom management skills, effective teaching strategies, etc. we will be able to have a classroom that is productive in terms of learning and positive class room behaviors.
I appreciate the conversation about how teacher’s set expectations about thier students based on previous teacher input but teachers may also set higher expectations if they feel parents are setting higher expectations. Most teacher’s have open houses and it is the parents who show up to these events that relay to the teacher that they have higher expectations for their children. Many parents do not show up and before the child even enters the class the teacher has added them to the list of “their parents did not show up” which could lead to several preconcieved notions about the child. It is important for the teacher to set high expectations for all of their students especially for the students whose parents are not as involved or set lower expectations for their child.
Research has shown that as teachers we will make judgments about our students. This is not necessary a bad thing, however, if our judgments are positive and challenging. For me, it is hard sometimes to keep the same high expectations for all students, however, this effect size shows how important this is for student success. By having the same goals and expectations for all students, this will allow less of a chance for us to make negative judgments about others, especially based on race, attractiveness, or a label. This also reduces the chance that students will be allowed to “opt-out” of certain tasks based on these judgments and expectations. The group also brought up student-teacher relationships which can play a vital part in expectations. This relationship must be formed so the teacher and student can create reasonable, yet challenging, goals and expectations.
I like that Katie pointed out the comment made by Hattie about prior knowledge of students. A lot of administrators require teachers to read their incoming students’ IEPs before the students arrive for the first day. This is a good thing because teachers should know their students’ IEP goals and accommodations beforehand. However, this is also one of the ways that teachers can gain misconceptions about their incoming students, depending on the contents of the present level of performance, and this can cause problems for the teacher when attempting to develop positive teacher-student relationships in the classroom.
Prior misconceptions and information about incoming students affects the teachers ability to build rapport and respectful, positive relationships with their students. Building rapport with students allows students to develop a trust and respect in their teacher. Positive teacher-student relationships has an effect size of d=0.72 on student achievement when the relationship is person-centered. Additionally, these relationships affect student engagement, respect for self and others, positive classroom behavior and reduction of negative/disruptive classroom behavior, increasing non-directivity, trust between the teacher and the student, achievement outcomes, and even student attendance. Cornelius-White, as referenced by Hattie (2009), noted in his meta-analysis that most students who miss school stay home because they have a negative relationship with their teacher. Overall, building positive, person-centered, student-teacher relationships has a profoundly positive effect on both student attitudes and achievement.
I enjoyed listening to this discussion and I think the statement Katie quoted from the text about the less you know about a student before they are in your class, the better they are likely to do academically (Hattie, 2009) is a really powerful statement. It is important to note though that teachers should try to gain as much relevant and non biased information about the student as possible, in order to better accommodate their needs. This does not mean getting biased information previous teachers though, which may attach an unfair stigma on the student. In addition, it is important to remember how we can set up a student for success or failure based on past performance or a label.
Interpersonal expectancy by the teacher has an effect size of .70, and ties in with the self-fulfilling prophecy. This is a very powerful indicator of student success and in essence says that a belief or expectation about the success of a student affects the outcome of their behavior or achievement in school. By setting high yet achievable goals for all students and taking out any preconceived notions, we can set them up for success and not pre-determine them for failure based on low expectations.
I think this discussion shows the importance of getting to know your students and their strengths and abilities. I agree that in some instances teachers may make judgments or label students based on preconceived notions. While information in cumulative folders, records, and reports from previous teachers can be useful to teachers, it can also be used to label students unfairly and thus lead to inappropriate expectations. This is especially true if the information that the teacher is basing these notions on is false or not a true representation of the student. I appreciate that the group touched on the fact that teachers need to make a more concerted effort to block out these preconceived ideas and refrain from labeling students and instead focus on building a relationship with the student by getting to know their abilities. This should lead to more accurate expectations and improve student achievement.
The discussion on expectations that teachers put on students was very interesting. I would have to agree with what Courtney stated about how teachers place labels onto students from their cumulative files or from heresy and not on the students’ abilities. It is hard for any teacher not to place a label on a student from previous knowledge; however, it is easier to find out information about a student through their strengths and abilities rather than previous knowledge from previous teachers. Hattie states (2009) that the less teachers know about their students prior to receiving the incorrect information, the better academic effects are on student learning (p.122). This is important for teachers that do not know much about their students because once we know about the “label” of the student, teachers set low expectations for the students and once these expectations are set it will be hard for teachers to determine what the student can be able to do academically.
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