Women in Movies…think again

Have you ever thought about women in movies? Do you ever think about how women are represented on the big screen? Well, it’s pretty eye-opening once you dig deeper. Movies make up a large part of our society, influencing our everyday lives. Hopefully this blog post will help you ask why things seen old-fashioned when it comes to the film industry, even in 2016.

Check out Fandango’s guide to the Top Ten Most Anticipated Movies of 2016. How many leading roles are women, better yet, how many women do you see pop up on the screen? 

Three women are highlighted for roles throughout the entire clip. Only one was an head lead role, Ellen DeGeneres, as Dory from Finding Dory. Here lies the problem.

Thinking about recent movies you’ve seen, how many of them include at least two female characters, with names? Do those women talk to each other? And do they talk about something other than a man?…Hard isn’t it. Believe it or not, those three components make up the Bechdel Test. The test was created by Alison Bechdel in the 1980s.

According to the Huffington Post, out of all the movies nominated for Best Picture for the 2014 Academy Awards, three of the eight total movies passed the Bechdel Test. To top it off, none of the leading roles in those movies were played by women. Do you start to see a trend? It’s something we see all the time, but never really think about in depth until someone points it out. It’s 2016 and we’re still dealing with women under-represented in film. Something just doesn’t seen right.

Women are seen in some of the more popular movies of the age. In her article, Girls Against The World, Alexandra Donald looks at what types of movies girls and women are portrayed in within the past few years. She specifically looked at the Twilight franchise, the Divergent series, Gravity, and more. One astounding fact she points out is that “Only 30 per cent of speaking characters in 2013’s highest grossing films were women” (62). Donald explains that young girls need to see a sense of girl power in movies because women are so under-represented. If women are not represented in movies, then girls will grow up with the stigma that women cannot achieve those goals.

The newest Star Wars movie, Star Wars: The Force Awakens, passes the Bechdel Test. This clip discusses how the movie makes a good step towards feminism and women in film.

In Julia T. Wood’s book, Gendered Lives, she dedicates chapter eleven to Gendered Media. Specifically, the agenda setting theory refers to the media setting the agenda for what people see and think about. So because movies mainly showcase males, we do not think about the fact that women are not equally represented. Therefore we do not even think about such little details, like in the Bechdel Test, that make such a difference in our society. People learn by example, if women are not displayed as lead roles or any roles for that matter, in movies then other women won’t think about it or try to change the norms.

Looking back at your favorite movies, how many of them pass the Bechdel test? The more conscious we are of agenda setting, the more we can ask questions and make advances in society. It’s important that we understand just how much the media and our culture can cloud views on everyday occurrences, especially gender. Ask yourself why are things the way they are and if we can change them.

Let Me Tell You Who You Should Be: Who Gets To Decide Gender?

Who really gets to decide gender in society? Do the colors and characteristics that we classify as male or female actually dictate gender? The idea of gender is regulated through our society, from the time a parent is told the sex of a child, items related to a person’s gender are pre-decided by society. If we advocate for people to be unique, then why do we give them a gender at the beginning of their lives?

The idea of gender can be expressed as early as the day when parents find out the sex of their child. Baby showers are usually colored coordinated blue or pink, for boy or girl. Some people even go as far as having gender reveal parties that construe the definitions of sex and gender. The ideals of gender are so intertwined with sex that we begin to see them as the same thing. According to the American Psychological Association, “Sex refers to a person’s biological status and is typically categorized as male, female, or intersex.” They also state that “gender refers to the attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that a given culture associates with a person’s biological sex.”

Healthychildren.org, which is published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, has a page dedicated to children’s gender, explaining to parents all the different possibilities of gender and sex. For the most part, the information on this page is reliable, but one sentence in particular stuck out to me. It reads,“Most children’s gender identity aligns with their biological sex.” But why does gender have to perfectly align with sex? Most people don’t realize how deep these two things can be. It’s not always black and white with gender and sex.

When you think about it, gender influences our lives every single day. A lot of controversies in the media recently have revolved around the idea of how kids should act according to our society’s gender roles. For example, this past month Adele was spotted at Disney World with her son who wore a dress by the character Anna from the movie Frozen around the theme park. There was a lot of backlash and support over social media due to that fact that she let her son wear a girl costume. Adele’s response basically said that she would support her son not matter of his life choices. The topic then became interesting to me as I wondered why our society gets in such an uproar about gender norms. The colors and characteristics connected to gender seem so normal and natural in our society, but why are they that way? We must ask ourselves why we put such restrictions and regulations on gender. Why does the color blue mean boy and pink mean girl? Why is it so weird when someone steps outside of these boundaries?

Adele Elite Dailey Pic

Adele and her son at Disney World

In her book, Gendered Lives, Julia T. Wood explains the study of gender through culture and communication. Though there are many theories on gender, Social Learning Theory stuck out in this situation. This theory explains that people develop their own ideas of gender, masculinity, and femininity through society. This can be seen through interactions with other people and what is seen on social media and television. The genders that people witness through everyday interactions help them to construct a definition of gendered behaviors.

For example, going back to Adele’s situation, people are influenced by others and media in different ways. Clearly her son liked Anna from the Disney movie Frozen enough to wear her dress. But because our gendered norms in society tell us that dresses are only for girls, there was backlash to his choice in costume. Her son didn’t seen a problem with wearing a dress, which also goes to show that gender norms do not connect with sex and are made through society. Someone’s sex does not determine their gender. If a little girl witnessed a little boy wearing a dress all the time and saw it on television, they would assume that to be a gendered norm. Society at large creates these gendered norms that are not biological determined, but rather learned through the people around them.

You may be wondering why the topic of gender event matters. If it matters so much to people to bother about the changes in gender norms, then it matters to look at it from a different angle. Especially in today’s society where acceptance and unique ways of life have become more open, then so should the ideals of gender. By understanding that gender can be a variety of different options, we are telling the future children of the world that they are free to be themselves. Each and every person is unique, so we should let them decide what their gender should be.

For more examples of classic gender norms within American Society, feel free to check out the Buzzfeed video below.

NatFarv takes on Gender Comm

Hello Word Press readers! My name is Natalie Farver and I am a senior Communication Studies major concentrating in Public Relations here at Longwood University. I am a native of Northern Virginia, Leesburg to be exact. At Longwood University I’m involved in many organizations, including Career Educators, Lambda Pi Eta, Mortar Board, and the Alpha Chapter of Sigma Sigma Sigma Sorority.

I love being a part of the Longwood community and broadening my communication skills through the organizations of which I am a member. Specifically, I’ve gained social media and website communication skills by holding the Website/Public Relations chair position in my sorority, Tri Sigma. I have also gained knowledge in event planning through the Geist Chapter of Mortar Board at Longwood where I helped plan an annual campus-wide fall festival event with fellow classmates.

My experiences with gender stem from my upbringing by my parents, who have a conservative outlook on the world. Growing up I was expected to learn to act “like a lady” by practicing polite table manners, taking ballet classes instead of playing sports, and learning household chores. I don’t think I thought much about sex and gender until arriving at Longwood University. The campus community is so open and inviting to people of all cultures, backgrounds, races, and genders. Through my experiences with friends, classmates, and professors who have different outlooks and opinions on the ideas of gender, I have come to recognize the different definitions and viewpoints of gender, which is what I hope to expand my knowledge on in this class.

"Lady-like" in my own way

“Lady-like” in my own way

Gender in the Workplace

Gender is an interesting topic for my work experience in particular. I have only had one retail job throughout my senior year of high school up to my junior year of college. I worked at a consignment shop in my hometown. The small business is a shop for children and women’s clothing, shoes, and accessories. The first owner of the shop was a woman and because of the type of merchandise sold in her store, all of the employees were women. The all female staff gave me a different experience than most jobs dealing with gender in the workplace. Due to the staff, I do not recall a specific time that I used my gender to an advantage in my work. It is interesting though that when we needed a light bulb changed out, or a mirror fixed, or any handiwork around the store, the owner’s husband would come and fix the problem instead the women employees.

Mainly the customers were teenagers, middle aged women, and moms with children. If a man was purchasing something in the store it was either a husband, friend, or a man looking for a tacky sweater for a holiday party. A particular experience that I remember is when a young woman was unhappy with the items of hers that were sold, she decided to come in twice in a week to complain and the second time she stopped by she brought a man with her. I was at the computer so I dealt with the problem. At first the women was the only one speaking to me as I explained her items sold and our consignment contract. She was clearly unhappy with the amount of money that she had made. After I explained her account to her, the man stepped in and was quite intimidating while asking me numerous questions that I had already answered. The way he leaned against the counter made him “superior” in a way. He was trying to gain power in the situation to try and get the answer he wanted. He also had his sunglasses on while drinking a cup of coffee. The two of them stood at the counter for quite some time before leaving the store. I felt quite uncomfortable by the way he was talking down to me and demanding I explain her account to him.

In a way, the man was using coercive power to try and get me to change our policies just for the one woman. Even though the man was trying to overpower my decision, it did not work since I as the employee had the power in the matter. It was interesting that the women assumed because her first try by herself did not work that by bringing a man into it, she could fix the problem. I held my ground and did not change the account or policies just because the customers were dissatisfied with the outcome. That was one of the few times that I had been effected by gender in a negative way in the workplace.

Online Portfolio- Tri Sigma

Press Release

Alpha Chapter of Sigma Sigma Sigma Sorority

201 High Street

Farmville, VA 20175 USA

Contact: Natalie Farver

(XXX) XXX-XXXX phone



For Immediate Release: October 20, 2014

Tri Sigma’s Fall Festival for the Robbie Page Memorial Fund on Oct. 25th

Farmville, VA (October 20, 2014)—The Alpha Chapter of Tri Sigma will be hosting a Fall Festival event on October 25, 2014 from 11am-3pm in the Student Union Ballroom. The event proceeds will go to the Robbie Page Memorial Fund, Tri Sigma’s National Philanthropy.

Tri Sigma’s Third Annual Fall Festival is their large philanthropic event of the fall semester. The event is open to all ages and has something fun for everyone. There will be multiple games, prizes, and food available to the guests. Guests can enjoy games such as needle in a haystack, balloon darts, and corn hole among others. Prizes include a jar of candy corn and some gift card raffles, along with autumn and Halloween inspired baked goods. All of the money raised from the event will go to the Robbie Page Memorial Fund.

The Robbie Page Memorial Fund is Tri Sigma’s philanthropy to help seriously ill children through therapeutic play. Therapeutic play is a way for children in hospitals to get active and take their minds off their sickness by also helping a child’s development. The Tri Sigma Foundation provides grants to hospitals around the United States. There are also two play atriums at Children’s Medical Center Dallas and NC Children’s Hospital-UNC Chapel Hill where sisters can visit and play with the children.

The Alpha Chapter of Tri Sigma frequently visits the play atrium at the NC Children’s Hospital on weekends. Fall Festival is the largest event for Tri Sigma’s philanthropy put on by the Alpha Chapter. The philanthropy is an important aspect of the sorority and they hope to raise a good amount of money at the Fall Festival on October 25th.

The Alpha Chapter of Tri Sigma is one of the nine sororities on Longwood University’s campus and is also the first and founding chapter of Sigma Sigma Sigma Sorority. For more information visit the chapter’s website http://trisigmaalpha.weebly.com/.


Fall Festival Fact Sheet

Tri Sigma’s Third Annual Fall Festival to support the Robbie Page Memorial Fund

Fall Festival is an event to support Tri Sigma’s philanthropy the Robbie Page Memorial Fund. The Robbie Page Memorial Fund is based on therapeutic play for terminally ill children. All of the proceeds from the event will be given to the RPM Fund. The event is open to all ages with fun activities for children, a booth for alumni to visit, as well as information about Tri Sigma and their philanthropy.

Where: Longwood University, Lankford Student Union Ballroom

Longwood University

201 High Street Farmville,

VA 23909

When: Saturday October 25th, 2014 11am-3pm

Tickets: 10 tickets for $1, 35 tickets for $3, and wristband for unlimited play are $5

Booths: Raffle Table,Robbie Page Donation Table, Alumni Table, Food & Drink Table, and Blood Pressure Checks done by the Longwood Nursing Program.

Activities: Cake Walk, Guess How Many, Face Paint, Fish Toss, Corn Hole, Pick A Pop, Burlap Sack Race, Pumpkin Ring Toss, Photo Booth, Needle In A Haystack, Vampire Balloon Bats, and Frisbee Tic Tac Toe.

Contact: Natalie Farver


Email: natalie.farver@live.longwood.edu

Website: http://trisigmaalpha.weebly.com/

For more information check out our Facebook Event https://www.facebook.com/events/1512634702309224/?ref_dashboard_filter=calendar

Alpha Chapter of Sigma Sigma Sigma Sorority–201 High Street Farmville, VA 20175 USA



Backgrounder on the Robbie Page Memorial Fund

History: The Robbie Page Memorial Fund was created and named after Tri Sigma’s Fourth National President’s son who died from polio as a boy. After the polio was cured by the vaccine, the RPM Fund continued to help ill children by directing the philanthropy towards therapeutic play. Therapeutic play is a way for terminally ill children to stay active in the hospital receiving treatment. It is also a good way for them to take their mind off of their illness. The Robbie Page Memorial Fund has grown larger since its start in the early 1950s and continues to grow today.

Philanthropy: Each chapter of Tri Sigma raises money for their National Philanthropy every semester and donates a certain amount per year. With the Robbie Page Memorial Fund, there are two Play Atriums, which are large play areas in hospitals where children can practice therapeutic play. The two play atriums in the United States are located in the Children’s Medical Center in Dallas, TX and in UNC Children’s Hospital in Chapel Hill, NC. Some chapters have the pleasure of visiting one or both of the play atriums to personally spend time with the children. The Alpha Chapter of Tri Sigma often visits the atrium at UNC Children’s Hospital as well as raises money to help their philanthropy. The play atriums are available to all ages with a wide variety of activities. The atriums are equipped with indoor jungle gyms, an arts and crafts corner, a music room, a game and arcade room, as well as computers with games.

The Sigma Sigma Sigma Foundation: The reigning board of Tri Sigma’s philanthropy, the Robbie Page Memorial Fund, is the Sigma Sigma Sigma Foundation. The foundation is fully dedicated to everything philanthropic. The board is made up of eighteen members as Board of Directors. It runs everything for Robbie Page and governs over the grants. Not only does the foundation deal with the philanthropy, but it also gives opportunities and scholarships to the women of Tri Sigma. The foundation was established in 1992 and is a non-profit organization within the United States.

To learn more about the Robbie Page Memorial Fund as well as the Sigma Sigma Sigma Foundation, visit the website: http://www.trisigmafoundation.org/philanthropy

Fall Festival presented by the Alpha Chapter

The Alpha Chapter of Tri Sigma’s Fall Festival on October 25th, 2014 will benefit their philanthropy, the Robbie Page Memorial Fund. The event is filled with a variety of games, prizes, and food. All of the proceeds made will be donated to the fund and will go towards the fund, grants, and the play atriums.


The Alpha Chapter of Tri Sigma Newsletter October 2014

[Due to formatting issues, the newsletter is linked to this page below]

Online Portfolio Newsletter

Networking 101

I attended Longwood University’s Career and Graduate School Fair on October 1st and found it to be quite interesting. The fair was mainly geared toward the Business School with most of the graduate schools and employers offering information relevant to that major. After exploring the options, I found a few employers with Communication based positions. I took the liberty of looking at a wide range of stations including Business Graduate Programs, Law Schools, Financial Companies, among others. I spoke with many representatives and employers about future career paths and options.

I had two very good conversations with a representative from Marymount University and an employee from McBee Associates. Each gave me multiple tips on how to succeed after my undergraduate career. The woman from Marymount showed information on their Business School since it corresponds with Communication Studies. She explained how an MBA is great to have in any field of work. She told me all about their social media pages and I explained how I run the social media accounts for my sorority. Since the fair, I have followed Marymount’s social media accounts and have grown interest in the school. We had an interesting conversation since I live in the D.C. Metro Area. It was nice to make a connection with someone who knew the area well. Talking to her was a great first networking opportunity and I enjoyed connecting and learning about the different graduate degrees offered.

The woman I spoke with at the McBee Associates table was also a great connection. She explained that their Communications based jobs are located in Pennsylvania, but she was happy to explain her role within the company. Her tips about working after college were to give it your all. She said that she spends a lot of time traveling, but it has helped her learn a lot. Then she went onto explain why she loved her job and why going into the Health field is a great idea. With her job, she told us we need to be ready to work and be flexible. She also incorporated how Communication Studies is a great major to have when going into any job field. I was glad to hear about how motivated she is to learn and how much she loves her job.

By talking to both women, I also gathered that being personable and interested will help guide me in the right direction. I enjoyed speaking with both women and getting some information about the workforce. I learned a lot of information to keep for when I apply and acquire a job, but I also learned how important and fun it is to network. I’d say that my first networking event went very well and I will take all of the information learned to heart. I will continue to research both Marymount University and McBee Associates to see if I’d be further interested.

Organization Culture

An organization that I am affiliated with is my major, the Communication Studies Department at Longwood University. The Communication Studies Department has coined the term for themselves, the COMMunity. By having a slogan for the department, the major created a culture within themselves. The label makes all of us included in it feel welcome and happy to be a part of something great on campus.

At the beginning of every new school year the department puts on a major meeting for all faculty and students to attend. At this meeting all of the professors are introduced as well as all of the organizations connected to the Communication Studies Department. The topic of internships and future jobs is also addressed. The meeting is entertaining by drawing raffle tickets with different prizes that the students can win. As for stories, upperclassmen have the opportunity to share stories and advice about their favorite professors. Hearing these stories helps to get the freshmen introduced to the faculty as well as gain a sense of belonging and connection to the COMMunity. The stories include all of the events the department puts on throughout the year as well as personal interactions and humorous moments with each faculty member. A new member or freshman can see how easy it is to fit in with our welcoming department filled with great students and faculty.

The stories told can also encourage the new members to want to make their own stories and experiences within the COMMunity. The welcoming atmosphere lets the new members know how our culture works and how they can make it their own. The stories build a culture and a COMMunity within our select group of people. The major meeting and every day encounters with students and faculty help the new members to feel included in their new home. Speaking for many, I can tell that students feel a sense of pride when they tell people what major they are a part of at Longwood University. Our major is not just a name to put on a diploma; it’s a home and subculture inside of our university.

Post Graduation Goals (Reflective Piece)

It’s hard to believe that I’ve already completed two years of my college career and I still do not know exactly what I would like to do after graduation. I chose to go into Communication Studies specifically Organizational Communications and Public Relations because I knew that there are numerous job options.

After having two years of Communication courses under my belt, I am still not sure what I would like to do with my career, but I am learning more everyday about the Public Relations field. I thought about working at a University to inspire students with Communication just as my professors have inspired me. I’ve also pondered over the ideas of event planning for non-profits, working social media accounts for small and large businesses, and working public relations for museums in D.C. to incorporate my History minor. There are so many more options than just the few that I’ve thought of, which makes choosing a career overwhelming.

I’m positive that I want to work in the Public Relations field, “where?” is the big question. When I graduate, I want to be already employed and have at least one professional internship experience completed. I think doing an internship in the D.C. or Northern Virginia area as well as another internship in Farmville could benefit my professional presence and give me the skillsets to work in different types of Public Relations settings.

The most important thing to be when I graduate is prepared. I will work my hardest these next two years to make sure that I am as ready as ever to enter the job force right after college. I will use all of Longwood’s available opportunities to build my professional self. By becoming a leader and taking initiative in the organizations that I am involved in on campus, I will build skills including group work, confidence, professionalism, event planning, social media, publicity, and so much more. Even though I do not know the exact job position that I want after graduation, I will do my best to prepare myself for numerous occupations.

Violent Much?

Image by flickr user BattieQ / CC licensed

How often do we see violence on the television screen? Violence is a very common theme in any type of television show nowadays. Certain dangerous and violent acts seen on television can make a true impact on people, especially if they watch television quite frequently. I always joke about dangerous things happening after I finish watching a crime show and my mother always tells me to stop watching so much television because it affects my judgment of the world. People can become paranoid and scared of a more “dangerous” world if they watch too much television.

Since most people watch television at one point or another, everyone should know the “side effects” of watching too much television. Almost every television show has some type of violence in it and by watching too much violence; people may take it as a normal thing to do. People may also take these acts as a true threat, making them convinced that the real world is a very dangerous place. A clouded judgment is not good to have. Society needs to emphasize the effects that television violence can do to a person so that the proper measures can be taken to change these ways.

Cultivation theory by George Gerbner, explains that the more television a person watches, the more they are likely to become worried about the world around them. The level of paranoia that a person can acquire from watching television depends on how many hours a specific person watches. If a person only watches a little bit of television then they are less likely to become worried about the “dangerous world”. The large periods of time spent in front of the television are more prone to show these results. For example, if a person happens to watch a crime show every so often, then their judgment on the world will most likely not change. But if a person watches the same crime show every week for multiple hours per week, they could become paranoid about the outside world, this is known as “mean world syndrome”. Violence in the media is a major example used to describe communication’s cultivation theory. Riddle, Potter, Metzger, Nabi, and Linz (2011) also explored the vividness of violence in media.

By watching television shows with violence as a recurring theme, such as crime shows, people can contract “mean world syndrome”. With their new clouded judgment, people could think that the types of themes including certain types of gender roles and race roles are true in everyday life situations. Say that on a certain crime show episode, a white male police officer was corrupt and did not obey the law; people who have watched too many crime show episodes could begin to think in the real world that all white male police officers are corrupt. This example of “mean world syndrome” shows how people can have critical judgment on the world, also known as “standpoint”.  “Our standpoint affects our worldview” is exactly what people can see if they have watched too much television. Their worldview can be altered to think like a crime show or violence television themes. Standpoint can be thought of as a way a certain type of person is judged. Most examples of standpoint theory are based on feminism, but Kinefuchi and Obre (2008) found that it also focuses on different races as well.

Image by flickr user Caroline et Louis VOLANT / CC licensed

The understanding of how some people may view the world is important for everyone to know. The dangers of watching too much television are not just myths. There is no need to have violence on television impact so heavily on lives. Preventions of “mean world syndrome” and negative “standpoints” are easy if people learn about them.

Spending too many hours by the big screen is an easy way to acquire negative thoughts of the world. People should stop watching so many television shows and go enjoy the world outside. If the amount of violence on television is lowered, there will be fewer worries about the world. The choice is easy.

Kinefuchi, E., & Obre, M. P. (2008). Situating oneself in a racialized world: understanding student reactions to crash through standpoint theory and context-positionality frames. Journal of International & Intercultural Communication, 1(1), 70-90. doi: 10.1080/17513050701742909

Riddle, K., Potter, J. W., Metzger, M. J., Nabi, R. L., Linz, D. G. (2011). Beyond cultivation: exploring the effects of frequency, recency, and vivid autobiographical memories for violent media. Media Psychology. 14(2), 168-191. doi: 10.1080/15213269.2011.573464

Will you ship your pants? A Look at Semiotics in Advertising

Have you seen Kmart’s new ad campaign? With two commercials already out the commercials seem to express an ulterior motive other than their new store deals. Their advertisements “Ship My Pants” and “Big Gas Savings” lure people in by catching them off guard. Many of the words can stand for different, offensive words, than what Kmart is really offering. Will these ads anger people or rather appeal to customers?

The “Ship My Pants” commercial was first aired on YouTube and then later on television after it became incredibly popular. As many people know, Kmart is not doing as well in the markets as it did in previous years, according to Tiffany Hsu, “But as it turns out, the discounter’s dirty mouth may prove to be a saving grace.” With the success of their first commercial, “Big Gas Savings” came out as Kmart’s second ad in their new campaign. With the inappropriate hidden meanings to these commercials, curse words, Kmart is taking a huge risk with the public interest. These ads could either offend people so much that they choose not to shop at Kmart anymore or they could do the complete opposite by attracting customers into the stores.

Semiotics is the study of signs and their meanings that “stand for something else”. Signs are a blend of a signifier, the visual or image of a sign and the signified, the meaning of or with the sign. The signifiers of the Kmart ads are the customer’s facial and vocal reactions to the deals and savings in the Kmart stores. The signified are the words describing the deals and savings. The viewers of these commercials see the words “ship and “gas” (deals and savings) to be so great that they sound like and are described as curse words. Marsen (2012) provides insight into the world of semiotics with videos. If people take the time to understand the advertisements, then maybe it will lure them into the stores instead of dragging them away. Kmart’s commercials can seem simple at first, but once understood, semiotics help to determine the true meanings.

Semiotics Theory, the understanding of signs, can change the way we look at different images in life. Different signs can mean one thing but many more if you look hard enough. These Kmart commercials obviously were made to grab the attention of viewers, but also let people know about their stores. Next time you view something, you may find yourself looking and understanding more of a sign.

Marsen, S. (2012). The semiotic construction of worldview in film: multimodal variations in Le Samourai, The Killer, and Ghost Dog. Semiotica, 190, 153-175. doi: 10.1515/sem-2012-0044

Image by flickr user Rob Stinnett / CC licensed