Farmers Resistance to a Solution (Blog #8)

Farmers are an important part of the pollution in the Chesapeake Bay.

                 My solution for the pollution issue in the Chesapeake Bay, due to agricultural runoff, is to incorporate cost effective conversations practices to all the farms in Virginia and Maryland that we possibly can. These practices are streamside buffers, stream side fencing, nutrient management plans, continuous no-till, and cover crops. My solutions take lots of time and money to efficiently enforce but without them pollution will continue to occur. Another issue with putting my solution into force is the farmers complying with these solutions.

Farmers bring the resistance in this issue. Their resistance is based on a few things. One is they believe they won’t produce the same amount of crops as they do with chemical fertilizers. Two continuous no till and cover crops also produce a different amount of crops or it could harm their business in general. The farmers resistance is more of a moral resistance rather than political. There also can be other resistance to this idea coming from environmentalists or land owners in Virginia near streams and rivers. This is because the fencing and buffers add a change to the land and this change might not be accepted by all because it doesn’t keep the area as visually appealing as before. However, this resistance could easily be changed if many different people come together to persuade and convince them how much this will help the pollution problem in the bay.

I believe farmers are the most resistant to these solutions, this because these solutions could affect their business and their lives. Like most business owners, the success of their business is what matters most to them and other factors are pushed aside. If locals of Virginia Beach and Chesapeake Bay enthusiasts come together then there is a better chance to persuade more farmers to implement these practices. Resistance needs to be diminished between farmers and the solution practices in order for pollution to be decreased.

Solutions For the Bay (Blog #7)

A “mahogany tide” creeps toward shore. Algal blooms like these are the result of too much nitrogen in the water, causing the explosive growth of algae. Photo © 2010 Morgan Heim/iLCP

The Chesapeake Bay Program stated that close to one-quarter of the land located in the Chesapeake Bay watershed is focused on agricultural production. Agriculture is an important aspect to many people because it provides foods and fibers, natural area, and environmental benefits. Although agriculture provides us with important resources it also is the largest source of nutrient and sediment pollution to the Chesapeake Bay. These excess nutrients and sediments that are entering the bay enter from agricultural runoff. The main issue with agricultural runoff is the types of fertilizers farmers are using on their crops.

The fertilizers they are using are chemical ones which contain large amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen. Although the bay does need phosphorus and nitrogen to survive, large amounts that the bay is receiving are slowing damaging the bay and its wild life. According to the Chesapeake Bay program, these fertilizers contribute 42 percent of the nitrogen, 58 percent of the phosphorus and 58 perfect of the sediment that enters the bay. From 2010 estimates from the EPA, chemical fertilizers, in specific, account for 17 percent of the nitrogen and 19 percent of the phosphorus entering the bay. When this pollution enters the bay it forms algal blooms that are large and block sunlight from entering the bay. This decreases the amount of oxygen that forms and kills the underwater grasses. These areas in the bay have been labeled “dead zones”, where no oxygen forms, and are the locations where fish and shellfish also die and decompose. Aside from blocking oxygen, algal blooms also raise pH level in the waters which spreads and kills more bay life and prospers the growth of parasites. Besides killing bay life, pollution also affects these species in different ways.

I believe the Chesapeake Bay needs to be clear of polluted runoff and clean for the species living inside and outside of the bay to survive. Things are being done to help clean the bay but by health standards the pollution level in the bay is still in critical condition. In order to make the bay a cleaner and runoff free location different solutions have been suggested. “The five most cost-effective conservation practices include streamside buffers, streamside fencing, nutrient management plans, continuous no-till, and cover crops. These practices reduce the most amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus per dollar spent” (Chesapeake Bay Foundation). Each of these solutions have different methods in preventing run-off.

Streamside buffers are very large, at almost 35 feet wide on each side of the stream, and are used to filter and gather the runoff from fertilizers before entering waterways. Streamside fencing is a much different solution that surrounds farms with fences to prevent animals and their waste from entering rivers and streams. This solution helps reduce the pollution levels and also erosion as well. Nutrient management plans are a communication solution rather than a border like solution. These plans educate farmers on what fertilizers to use on crops that will least pollute waterways. Continuous no till is a solution that limits erosion and also decreases soil disturbances. By using the no till solution the soil’s health can improve and also its level to hold moisture. Cover crops are the final possible solution for farmers because these crops are planted to soak up the remaining fertilizer than could enter waterways.

To implement these solutions a few steps need to be taken.

  1. Farmers need to be informed of the solutions that are available for them to decrease their levels of pollution to the Chesapeake Bay.
  2. Farmers need to enforce these solutions and management practices as quickly as possible.
  3. The general public also needs to be informed of what solutions are available to help decrease the bay pollution as well. This could help decrease the pollution drastically.

Letters, flyers, emails, websites, and many other forms of communication can be created and sent to inform farmers of what they can do. Resistance may be seen from farmers who believe the chemical fertilizers they are using are the best for their crops. However, if they are properly informed that chemical fertilizers are not the best option for them then I believe solutions will be put forth. Bu educating the general public they can gain concerns as well and help the effort to clean the bay before it gets damaged any worse.

Valente, Jenna. “Ten Invasive Species of the Chesapeake Bay.” Chesapeake Bay Program. Chesapeake Bay Program, 22 Apr 2013. Web. 27 Sep 2013. <http://www.chesapeakebay.net/blog/post/ten_invasive_species_of_the_chesapeake_bay>.

“Chemical Contaminents.” Chesapeake Bay Program. Chesapeake Bay Program, n.d. Web. 27 Sep 2013. <http://www.chesapeakebay.net/issues/issue/chemical_contaminants>.

Staff, . “Dead Zones.” Chesapeake Bay Foundation. Chesapeake Bay Foundation, n.d. Web. 27 Sep 2013. <http://www.cbf.org/about-the-bay/maps/pollution/dead-zones>.

Agricultural Runoff IS the Main Problem

By: Kelsey Garletts

                      Pollution in the Chesapeake Bay is an issue that is prevalent in Virginia and Maryland areas where the bay flows into. However, for my issue I want to narrow it down to the pollution to the bay area that specifically touches Virginia Beach. Virginia Beach is my home and a very beautiful landscape that I don’t want to see destroyed. Since the bay is a large watershed that many different rivers and streams filter into, there are several types of pollution entering the bay. For my focus on pollution and the bay the pollution type I am going to discuss into a deeper more in depth level is agricultural runoff. If you are uninformed what exactly agricultural runoff is, or have not read my past blogs then agricultural runoff is defined as the water flow that occurs when the soil is infiltrated to full capacity and excess water from rain, meltwater, or other sources flows over the land. Agricultural runoff enters steams and rivers from all over the state that eventually enter the Chesapeake Bay.

                The main issue with agricultural runoff is the types of fertilizers farmers are using on their crops. The fertilizers they are using are chemical ones which contain large amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen. Although the bay does need phosphorus and nitrogen to survive, large amounts that the bay is receiving are slowing damaging the bay and its wild life. According to the Chesapeake Bay program, these fertilizers contribute 42 percent of the nitrogen, 58 percent of the phosphorus and 58 perfect of the sediment that enters the bay. From 2010 estimates from the EPA, chemical fertilizers, in specific, account for 17 percent of the nitrogen and 19 percent of the phosphorus entering the bay. When this pollution enters the bay it forms algal blooms that are large and block sunlight from entering the bay. This decreases the amount of oxygen that forms and kills the underwater grasses. These areas in the bay have been labeled “dead zones”, where no oxygen forms, and are the locations where fish and shellfish also die and decompose. Aside from blocking oxygen, algal blooms also raise pH level in the waters which spreads and kills more bay life and prospers the growth of parasites. Besides killing bay life, pollution also affects these species in different ways. Pollution causes the suppression of behavioral and immune systems in fish, the development of intersex conditions in fish and impaired reproduction of fish eating birds.

Besides the species inside of the bay being affected the locals living around the bay are also affected. What was once a beautiful place to walk and relax is slowing turning into a dead area where dead fish are being washed up, the waters are slowly turning dark brown, and even people can become ill from the high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Tourists and locals that come to the bay come for a relaxing vacation or just a fun day, they don’t come to get sick and be disgusted by the dead species and dark waters.

There are two programs out there who are doing all they can to help the bay. One is the Chesapeake Bay Program and the other is the Chesapeake Bay Foundation. These two websites are vital for my information and are great places to go if you want to help clean the bay. The bay can’t clean its self and people need to be informed of the issue of agricultural runoff before it gets worse.

Works Cited

Valente, Jenna. “Ten Invasive Species of the Chesapeake Bay.” Chesapeake Bay Program. Chesapeake Bay Program, 22 Apr 2013. Web. 27 Sep 2013. <http://www.chesapeakebay.net/blog/post/ten_invasive_species_of_the_chesapeake_bay>.

“Chemical Contaminents.” Chesapeake Bay Program. Chesapeake Bay Program, n.d. Web. 27 Sep 2013. <http://www.chesapeakebay.net/issues/issue/chemical_contaminants>.

Staff, . “Dead Zones.” Chesapeake Bay Foundation. Chesapeake Bay Foundation, n.d. Web. 27 Sep 2013. <http://www.cbf.org/about-the-bay/maps/pollution/dead-zones>.

Baker, William, and Tom Horton. “Runoff and The Chesapeake Bay.” Black and White Photographs. 16.6 n. page. Web. 4 Oct. 2013. <http://ehis.ebscohost.com.proxy.longwood.edu/eds/detail?sid=27192255-aa7d-46e7-87f4-2d60349f8ce4@sessionmgr115&vid=1&hid=115&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ==

Everything You Need to Know About the Bay (Blog 5)

By: Kelsey Garletts

The Chesapeake Bay is a beautiful destination for many tourists from all over the country. From its amazing sunsets to non crowded beaches, the Chesapeake Bay is a relaxing and wonderful place to be.  Although the bay may look this way on the outside, the inside is dealing with some very concerning issues. One main and very important source of this pollution is agricultural runoff and more importantly, fertilizers. When this pollution enters the bay it forms algal blooms that are large and block sunlight from entering the bay. This decreases the amount of oxygen that forms and kills the underwater grasses. These areas in the bay have been labeled “dead zones”, where no oxygen forms, and are the locations where fish and shellfish also die and decompose. Aside from blocking oxygen, algal blooms also raise pH level in the waters which spreads and kills more bay life and prospers the growth of parasites. Besides killing bay life, these algae that form also can be toxic and sicken people who ingest the water.

Fertilizer was invented in the 1940’s by farmers to kill bugs and weeds that were thriving on their crops. The fertilizer contained chemical pesticides, nitrogen and phosphorus, that had a better affect than manure did on plants. Back in the 1940’s the farmers and locals did not realize what these fertilizers were doing to the Chesapeake Bay so they were used quote often, quickly polluting the bay. Runoff gets into the bay from groundwater and through rivers and streams that flow into the bay. This means that not only are the local farmers causing pollution, but also farmers from all over.

By addressing my issue and proposing a solution I believe all of my stake holders would benefit. The Chesapeake Bay Program and the Chesapeake Bay Foundation may gain more followers and more workers to help clean the bay. Locals and tourists would have clean waters to swim and relax in without the worry of constant pollution. Also businesses would stay at a growing rate because of the products they will continue to receive from a clean bay. Finally the species in the bay will finally have a home to live in and continue to prosper and grow in the bay.

Things are being done to help clean the bay but by health standards the pollution level in the bay is still in critical condition. In order to make the bay a cleaner and runoff free location different solutions have been suggested. “The five most cost-effective conservation practices include streamside buffers, streamside fencing, nutrient management plans, and continuous no-till, and cover crops. These practices reduce the most amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus per dollar spent” (Chesapeake Bay Foundation). Each of these solutions has different methods in preventing run-off. Something needs to be done to change their practices and clean the Chesapeake Bay back to its healthy state. Without enforcing the solutions suggested before nothing will change and the bay will continue to be polluted. It’s time to educate farmers and make a change in the bay now, before it gets worse and we lose many resources important to us.

Critical Source Summary:

Chesapeake Bay Foundation, . “Farming’s Critical Role to Keep Our Waters Clean.” Chesapeake Bay Foundation. Chesapeake Bay Foundation, n.d. Web. 7 Oct 2013. <http://www.cbf.org/how-we-save-the-bay/issues/agriculture>.

This web page discusses the issues farming has with pollution. However, it also brings about another side of this issue and how the farming business is being demised. This foundation mentions solutions and what they are doing to clean the bay. Also they mention how we can help. The Chesapeake Bay Foundation is an important one help define my position because they are a nonprofit organization that is doing all they can to save the bay. I can find any information I want about the bay and what runoff is actually doing to the bay. The solutions they list are actual solutions that are being put forth currently to clean the bay free of pollution.

Chesapeake Bay, We Have A Problem… Blog 4

The Chesapeake Bay seems to be filled with different problems that rise because of pollution but what is the main problem here? That problem would be agricultural runoff! But the exact issue with runoff is the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus that is being dumped into the bay because of fertilizers. Although farmers often use natural sources as fertilizers, “they frequently apply commercial fertilizers as well. The result is soil that is saturated with excess nutrients. Attached to the soil, the nutrients wash toward the bay in overland runoff. They can also dissolve in water that percolates below the surface into streams and rivers flowing to the estuary. Polluted land equals polluted water” (Baker, and Horton). THIS IS A PROBLEM. The bay is being destroyed, along with its marine life that thrives inside of it. But why is agricultural pollution the biggest of the bays worries? The answer is “the runoff of “nutrients,” the nitrogen and phosphorus are prime culprits in the bay’s decline, is several times as great from farmlands as it is from any other source”(Baker, and Horton).  Something more needs to be done.

The Chesapeake Bay Foundation and Chesapeake Bay Program are people who are slowly working to fix this problem. Their ultimate mission is to clean the bay to good health and meet the water quality standards. These foundations and programs are the main supporters of the clean bay and work to prevent runoff in the future. They do all they can to make the issues known to more people than just the locals but it is harder than it seems. They have created web sites and information all over to help spread the word and really affect the person reading enough to do something. What this all really comes down to is that if people aren’t educated about what is happening then the bay will continue to be polluted.

However, there is another side to this argument. This is the famers that cause the pollution. Farmers rely on chemical fertilizers to help their crops grow and to produce more for their business. Yes, they do understand that they are adding to the pollution, but their business is what is seen as most important to them. Because of this they have gained agreement from other farmers and people around who believe crops are more important than the pollution they may be causing. However, some farmers are switching to other methods, but majority have not caught on to that trend. They persuade people by describing the importance of crops and food to our society and without it many markets will crash. Farmers try to gain the sympathy from people making them want to support their business while people completely forget about the pollution they are causing.

Something needs to be done! People need to be aware and farmers need to use different solutions for fertilizer to stop this problem!

 

 

 

Works Cited/ Critical Source Summaries

Baker, William, and Tom Horton. “Runoff and The Chesapeake Bay.” Black and White Photographs. 16.6 n. page. Web. 4 Oct. 2013. <http://ehis.ebscohost.com.proxy.longwood.edu/eds/detail?sid=27192255-aa7d-46e7-87f4-2d60349f8ce4@sessionmgr115&vid=1&hid=115&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ==

This journal focuses on the main issue of pollution for the Chesapeake Bay, runoff. They state two types of runoff, agricultural and developmental runoff. Agricultural runoff and caused by farming and chemical fertilizers farmers use. These fertilizers add more nitrogen and phosphorus to the bay than is needed and it is killing the life in the bay.  The developmental runoff adds sediment pieces to the bay from rainwater and drainage from construction areas. Sediments damage fish eggs, kill fish by getting into their lungs, and damages prime habitats in the bay. The journal mentions that things are being done, but not quick enough.

Comis, Don. “New Poultry Litter Applicator Offers Hope for Chesapeake Bay Area.” Agricultural Resource. 58.7 (2010): n. page. Web. 4 Oct. 2013. <http://ehis.ebscohost.com.proxy.longwood.edu/eds/detail?sid=e0a5870c-a34a-457d-921a-7689c9cd40b6@sessionmgr198&vid=1&hid=115&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ==

This article discusses something being done about the pollution. A Poultry Litter Applicator has been invented by people from Pennsylvania State and Virginia Tech and is being tested in areas around the Chesapeake Bay area. This applicator helps spread litter throughout the fields without damaging the lands and getting the most use of manure as possible. This is a great invention because then chemical fertilizers will be used less and pollution would decrease.

Stakeholders, Who Are They? What Do They Do? Blog #3

Many efforts are being done daily by different stakeholders to do all they can to clean the bay.

By: Kelsey Garletts

The Chesapeake Bay spreads from the bottom of Virginia all the way up to Maryland. The bay also produces drainage that flows into New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and West Virginia. The vast amount of coverage the bay has creates many different stakeholders. Stakeholders are the people involved with the bays pollution problems. Their involvements include ways they are invested, concerns, and if the pollution is affecting them or not. Due to the large amount of pollution the Chesapeake Bay is experiencing there are multiple different stakeholders.

First let’s discuss the groups of people who are trying to help the bay. The Chesapeake Bay program is a group of stakeholders whose main goal is to restore the bay to its starting point of clean, healthy water. This group is a regional partnership that includes partners from federal and state agencies, local governments, non-profit organizations, and academic institutions. Also included in this program are staff members who work to restore the bay. Another group of stakeholders who are trying to clean the waters is the Chesapeake Bay foundation, whose goal is to clean the water free of contaminants. This foundation also helps to educate people about what is happening in the bay and also gather more people to assist in the clean up. The Chesapeake Bay foundation gathers schools, communities, and social groups to help work to clean the bay all around the Virginia Maryland area.  These stakeholders are the most important aspect to fighting the war against pollution in the bay.

Besides the groups trying to restore the bay, there are also groups who are clueless to the issues and are possibly creating bigger issues as well. These stakeholders are the locals and tourists. With a population of 8,185,867, Virginia’s residents are sometimes unknowingly polluting the bay. Farmers are a part of this group of stakeholders affecting the bay. The different fertilizers farmers use on their crops spread nitrogen and phosphorus into Virginia’s waterways and into the bay, causing a large amount of pollution.

The locals and residents are also considered stakeholders for many other different reasons. Due to pollution many businesses are suffering because they rely on many of the wildlife within the bay. One example of this is the oysters within the bay. During the summer I work in a seafood restaurant and seafood market that relies deeply on the oyster business, but recently issues have sprung about. Due to pollution the oyster business has been slow and the farming of oysters has been cut down to make sure we save the bay. Although this seems good for the bay it’s bad for local businesses trying to make a living. Another large business, that is a HUGE stakeholder when discussing pollution in the bay, is the fishermen. The bays fish are important to many fishing businesses that provide the bays species to businesses all over the United States. The pollution is affecting their business by slowing down the reproduction processes of fish and damaging fish’s immune system, slowly depleting the fishing industry.

A final stakeholder dealing with Chesapeake Bay pollution is a very important one, the species in the bay. The Chesapeake Bay is full of many different types of species, these are; fish, swans, mussels, clams, nutria, oysters, phragmites, and crabs. These stakeholders are being affected by the bay in harmful ways. Pollution is destroying their home slowly but surely. Once their home is destroyed they will no longer exist and many industries will diminish because of this.

Stakeholders play a large role in the bay itself. They help clean up the bay, live in the bay, pollute the bay, and survive from the bays resources. The Chesapeake Bay has many different types of stakeholders but the ones I listed above seem most important when dealing with pollution. Since the bay has many different stakeholders its importance is known and pollution needs to be put to an immediate stop. We need to educate those polluters and help those who are making attempts to clean the bay so businesses, wildlife, and locals can have their bay back!

Works Cited

Valente, Jenna. “Ten Invasive Species of the Chesapeake Bay.” Chesapeake Bay Program. Chesapeake Bay Program, 22 Apr 2013. Web. 27 Sep 2013. <http://www.chesapeakebay.net/blog/post/ten_invasive_species_of_the_chesapeake_bay>.

 

“Chemical Contaminents.” Chesapeake Bay Program. Chesapeake Bay Program, n.d. Web. 27 Sep 2013. <http://www.chesapeakebay.net/issues/issue/chemical_contaminants>.

 

Staff, . “Dead Zones.” Chesapeake Bay Foundation. Chesapeake Bay Foundation, n.d. Web. 27 Sep 2013. <http://www.cbf.org/about-the-bay/maps/pollution/dead-zones>.

Where do these pollutants come from???

Here are the oysters located in the Chesapeake Bay, which are still being polluted on a daily basis.

By: Kelsey Garletts

                   Thousands of years ago the Chesapeake Bay was formed from melting ice caps and river runoffs. Approximately 5,000 years ago was the first oysters began to colonize in the bays waters. It wasn’t until the 1860’s when everything began going downhill. Pollution, the scary, scary word, first came into play around 1860 when people began building sewage systems that sent waste run off directly into the bay. Not only was that a pollution issue but also the newly formed coal burning industries blew mass amounts of smoke into the air eventually seeping pollutants into waterways.

                It wasn’t until the 1900’s when this pollution was noticed. How? The popular oyster population was decreasing rapidly. At first the reason seemed unknown then questions began to form. What was causing this? Scientists began testing and researching exactly what human activity was doing to the bays health.

                This research seemed pushed aside for a few years while more cities grew and more wastewater and storm water systems kept being built, which were constantly dumping the runoff into the Chesapeake Bay. However around 1910 people decided to put a stop to the pollution and built wastewater and storm water filters to clean the water before entering the bay.

                This solution seemed fixed for a while until America began to grow rapidly. More and more industries were being built and more and more Americans minds steered away from the bay and onto industry. The 1940s introduced a new pollution to the waterways. FERTILIZER. American became reliant on crops and money from crops. Crops seemed much more important than keeping the bay clean. The fertilizers people were now using on their fields and lawns were actually causing more damage to the bay. Around this same time the idea of “fishing” increased and became very popular and a new industry for America to take on. America didn’t realize that if our water isn’t healthy then this industry would not prosper.

                1950 scientists began discovering some very interesting things in the bay. “Dermo” and “MSX” were found and were defined as diseases that kill oysters. Once these diseases were found Clean Water Acts were created to help maintain the bay and prevent diseases from spreading. Although polluted runoff was still entering the bay and still are entering the bay.

                Where are the pollutants coming from today? As unsurprising as this is they are still coming from runoff and fertilizers. Chemical pesticides that are in these fertilizers, which are used to kill bugs and weeds, are now entering the bay and killing the health of the bay. These pesticides kill the immune systems of fish, harm the development of intersex conditions in fish, and impair the reproduction of fish eating birds.

                This issue is very prevalent around the tidewater region but yet seems to be ignored by many. Pollution to the Chesapeake Bay dates back a few hundred years and still today the bay is being polluted. In order to save our industries and prevent human illness something needs to be done.

Works Cited

“Bay History.” Chesapeake Bay Program. Chesapeake Bay Program, n.d. Web. 19 Sep 2013. <http://www.chesapeakebay.net/history>.

What Are We Swimming In? (Blog #1)

The Chesapeake Bay is a popular tourist destination in Virginia, specifically Virginia Beach. The beaches surrounding the bay are not heavily packed and the water is calm enough to have a relaxing and fun day at the beach. Families come from all over to spend days at the bay and hours in the water. However, little do these families know, the waters their families are swimming in are full of many different dangerous aspects. Immediately you may think of wildlife dangers but those are the least of your worries.

The social issue I would like to discuss is the constant pollution to the Chesapeake Bay. Pollution is a word that many people push past and ignore on a daily basis. This is because they know many of the technologies or means of travel we use often cause pollution to our world and they feel there is nothing they can do about it. People also ignore the fact that our waterways we swim, drink, bathe, and do many other activities in are also heavily polluted but still continue to thrive in them. The Chesapeake Bay is being constantly polluted on a daily basis and the knowledge people have of this pollution is slim to none, which is a scary thought.

I came across a wonderful website titled, “Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Saving a National Treasure” that described the main ways the Chesapeake Bay is being polluted. These ways are by nitrogen and phosphorus run-off. Nitrogen and phosphorus are two key nutrients the bay needs to survive, but too much of these nutrients damage the water quality. These nutrients come from many unsuspected places that people need to be more educated about. Animal feed lots, sewage treatment plants, and polluted runoff from cropland in urban and suburban areas are the main locations where some of these pollutants come from. About 1/3 of the nitrogen going into the waters comes from a well known location, vehicles. Car exhaust and industrial sources pollute the air daily with nitrogen that then enters the bay. When this pollution enters the bay it forms algal blooms that are large and block sunlight from entering the bay. This decreases the amount of oxygen that forms and kills the underwater grasses. These areas in the bay have been labeled “dead zones”, where no oxygen forms, and are the locations where fish and shellfish also die and decompose. Aside from blocking oxygen, algal blooms also raise pH level in the waters which spreads and kills more bay life and prospers the growth of parasites. Besides killing bay life, these algae that form also can be toxic and sicken people who ingest the water.

Many different people can be considered stakeholders when dealing with the pollution in the Chesapeake Bay. The most important are the locals. The locals use the bay more than anyone else and have to see the damages that are occurring, but are much uninformed.  Also there are many groups and organizations that are trying all they can to clean up the bay, but it is staying a slow process. A final stakeholder is the fishermen who are slowly losing all their business due to this pollution. The pollution to the Chesapeake Bay is a very serious issue. I believe people need to be better informed of the issues and need to do everything they can to prevent future pollution. By focusing on this issue I hope to better inform the locals of the current pollution problem and also do all I can to stop the nitrogen and phosphorus runoff. After during research on my topic I hope to discover a primary source that could help me reach my ultimate goal of informing locals and the people causing the pollution, “pollutants”, about this issue. I also hope to do something about the water I swim in during the summers and hopefully clean the water for other people as well.

Works Cited

“Dead Zones.” Chesapeake Bay Foundation. Chesapeake Bay Foundation, n.d. Web. 12 Sep 2013. <http://citationmachine.net/index2.php?reqstyleid=1&mode=form&rsid=6&reqsrcid=MLAWebDocument&more=yes&nameCnt=1>.

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