- My favorite ENGL 305 course text was Burke’s essay on Hitler’s Rhetoric. It was really interesting to read about the rhetoric tools and their effectiveness. Hitler is not someone we see as a model for anything, and anything Hitler-related is usually disregarded. I think it is important to learn about Hitler’s rhetoric because obviously what he did worked during that time.
- I can incorporate knowledge and experiences from this class in the real world by being able to pick out specific rhetorical tools in the rhetoric of politicians. It also gives me the ability to use rhetoric effectively in my professional life. An issue that is relevant to me right now is Donald Trump becoming the president elect. Many people are upset about this and have very strong feelings about it. I’ve learned from this class to pay close attention to the rhetoric of Donald Trump and those who are upset about his election. Going forward, I will be more informed and carefully listen to the rhetoric of everyone in order to see what is really going on.
- A skill I believe I have gained in ENGL 305 is analyzing. Skills for Future Reference: Managing groups, enlisting help, making decisions, speaking effectively. While taking ENGL 305, I learned how to write more concisely. While taking ENGL 305, I researched Hillary Clinton’s rhetoric on gender inequality to write a conference paper on her rhetoric in the past, present and future.
Outline: Gender Inequality in America
Cross National Text: Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s Declaration of Sentiments
Hillary Clinton’s rhetoric VS Donald Trump’s rhetoric regarding women and gender issues.
Research: Primary Sources > Hillary Clinton speech on women’s rights in Beijing, China; Clinton’s comments on women’s rights and gender issues in the third presidential debate; and Hillary Clinton’s website where she discusses what she will do as president for women and children in America. For Donald Trump, his comments made about women during the course of his presidential campaign, Trump’s website where the issue of child care is discussed, and the third presidential debate.
Secondary Sources > Martha Pease’s article “Is Trump Advancing Women’s Rights?”; Michelle Bligh’s article “Finding Her Voice: Hillary Clinton’s Rhetoric in the 2008 Presidential Campaign,” ; Hudson and Leidl’s article “Glass Ceiling: Has Hillary Really Helped the World’s Women?”; and Ann McGinley’s article “Hillary Clinton, Sarah Palin, and Michelle Obama: Performing Gender, Race, and Class On the Campaign Trail.”
Method: Toulmin Model > Claim, Data, Warrant, Backing, Counterclaim, Rebuttal Logical fallacies in both Clinton and Trump’s rhetoric, credibility of their claims, emotional appeals they use in each speech
Purpose Statement: In the following sections of this paper, I will be discussing presidential candidates Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump’s rhetoric on the topic of gender inequality issues. I will be evaluating each candidate’s rhetoric using the Toulmin model and examining sources where the candidates are discussing the topic of gender inequality, such as Hillary Clinton’s 1995 speech at the Women’s Conference in Beijing, China, various comments made by Donald Trump about women, the third presidential debate, as well as both of the candidates websites.
Thesis Statement: By analyzing the rhetoric of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump it will become clear if either candidates is truly working towards bettering the gender equality movement and how they plan to do so as president of the United States of America.
- At the beginning of Burke’s essay, he says that, “The appearance of Mein Kampf in unexpurgated translation has called forth far too many vandalistic comments. There are other ways of burning books than on the pyre–and the favorite method of the hasty reviewer is to deprive himself and his readers by inattention. I maintain that it is thoroughly vandalistic for the reviewer to content himself with the mere inflicting of a few symbolic wounds upon this book and its author, of an intensity varying with the resources of the reviewer and the time at his disposal” (191). Burke’s claim here is that books do not have to be burned to be destroyed and disregarded. By reviewers coming to hasty judgments about Hitler’s book simply because of the kind of man he was and the things he did historically, one cannot truly understand the importance of Hitler’s book. The rhetoric and meaning needs to be carefully analyzed in an unbiased way for the meaning to be truly divulged. Burke pulls many meanings from Hitler’s work and tries to understand the reasons why he did things. Burke even praises Hitler’s rhetoric and ability to appeal to his readers in a sympathetic manner.
- Some features that Hitler uses as a part of his rhetoric of “unification” are inborn dignity, projection device, symbolic rebirth, and commercial use. He uses inborn dignity to stress that “Aryan” is above everybody else because of his blood, and the other races are inferior. Projection device the use of a scapegoat to pass on ones ills. Symbolic rebirth was used to provide its followers with a more positive life view. It provides followers with a sense of moving forward and moving towards a goal. And commercial use was Hitler’s way of blaming Jewish people for the economic woes of Germany. Hitler’s point here was that the Jewish people were profiting while the rest of Germany was suffering economically.
- In the 2016 presidential election, Donald Trump has used several of Hitler’s rhetorical tools of unification. Trump has used a projection device in his rhetoric by making immigrants, often times Mexicans out to be a scapegoat when talking about our nations economic decline, stating that they are taking our jobs and not paying taxes. Mexicans, according to Trump are also bringing crime into the United States. Trump also uses the concept of symbolic rebirth when talking about “making America great again”. He wants to get rid of all the illegal immigrants, and this will bring America back to it’s former economic glory. And lastly, Trump uses commercial use to deflect the internal issues here in the United States and places all the blame on immigrants, and even our own government. Trump has said on many occasions that our own government is pulling us into financial ruin. He also encourages the hate directed towards immigrants.
For my conference paper topic, I want to discuss the gender inequality issues that we as Americans are facing today, particularly the differences in rights that women still struggle with, including pay gaps and the differences in sexualization of men vs women in modern culture.
- The cross-national text that I will be using to examine the rhetoric of gender inequality is Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s Declaration of Sentiments. This is an excellent example of women being oppressed and fighting for equality. The main issue that I want to focus on is women being held to a different standard than men. In the Declaration of Sentiments, a list of grievances are presented including the one that women are seen as the property of men, which is similar to the idea today of women being seen as objects.
2. I will be focusing on Donald Trump’s comments about women from the 2016 presidential race. His derogatory comments about the former Miss Universe Alicia Machando, the video where he is perceived to be talking about sexually assaulting women, his conduct towards female co-workers, etc. I will also look at some of Hillary Clinton’s rhetoric regarding women, which is much more positive. Clinton’s message regarding women seems to be more aimed towards helping close the gap between men and women and achieving gender equality.
3. My primary source will be from Hillary Clinton’s website on the issue of Women’s rights and opportunity. This source includes a video at a Clinton rally where she brings up the fact that Donald Trump referred to her as using the “woman card” to win the presidential election. The rest of the website goes on to talk about how Hillary Clinton plans to close the pay gap, addresses violence towards women, and help support women all around the world.
For one of my secondary sources I will use an article from USNEWS.com that talks about why young women are not totally on board with Hillary Clinton. The article goes into how young and inexperienced young, college aged women have not yet seen the roadblocks that exist for women in the work force. The article discusses Hillary Clinton’s past and how she has been fighting for women’s rights for her entire life, ever since she was an attorney and first experienced inequality when she was denied maternity leave. Clinton helped establish maternity leave and now advocates for similar rights designated specifically to women.
In Michael Dirda’s talk he claims that reading is one of the most important factors in becoming an effective citizen of the world. Dirda praises reading as one of the highest forms of absorbing culture and knowledge. His support for the claim that reading is the most important factor in becoming a citizen in the world is that it opens ones mind to a whole new perspective, whether you are reading a book about women’s rights or narrative about slavery, by reading we are able to put ourselves into the position to understand others and the struggles that they have faced. He acknowledges that reading is becoming harder and harder for kids today, and emphasized the importance of children finding something that interests them, then picking a genre of book going off of that. This will get them started and hopefully foster a love for reading. Some assumptions implied in his talk are that all people have access to books. I find this not to be true. In rural areas, there might not be an easily accessible library around. And if the children are living in poverty, then they will not have access to online reading material. Another factor that must be taken into account is the level of literacy. This could be a crippling factor when it comes to being able to read.
The “intertextuality” of Donald Trump’s speech on immigration can be compared to the Declaration of Independence. In his speech, Trump is referring to illegal immigrants as “invaders”. I think that he is in many ways comparing President Obama’s executive orders regarding immigration to the King’s actions being spoken of in the Declaration of Independence. Trump is saying that as our ruler, President Obama has no right to make these orders against the will of the people, therefore infringing on our rights as citizens. President Obama is in many ways taking away the right of the American peoples’ democracy. In a way, the illegal immigrants could be compared to the “the merciless Indian Savages” as stated in the Declaration of Independence. Donald Trump sees President Obama’s executive orders regarding immigration as a similar acts as the King working with the Native Americans to defeat the colonists.
For my political artifact, I found a video of Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign announcement. This video provides a representation of all kinds of people, which appeals to people who might be able to relate to those depicted in the video. Single mothers, people of various ethnic backgrounds, young people preparing for college, and older people preparing for retirement. The use of these people help convey Hillary Clinton’s message of helping all people and not discriminating.
The construction of this narrative directs our interpretation into noting the differences between Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump’s values. By showing such a variation of people in her ad, she is showing potential voters that she does not care whether you are educated, poor, rich, black, white, etc. The only consequences I can really see in this ad is the potential to not follow through with the things she is promising. If her campaign does not center around protecting those that she depicts in this ad, such as the Hispanics, young people preparing for college, and the elderly preparing to retire.
This campaign announcement ad reveals that the focus of Hillary’s campaign will be on family. Family plays are large role in this video, such as the single mother trying to provide for her child by going back to college. The mood of this ad is very fun and carefree, focusing on families with their dogs and children. Hillary is going to use emotional appeals regarding children and families to gain supporters for her presidential campaign.
Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign announcement video reveals that our culture values family and people from all walks of life. She includes a diverse array of people in this ad, which shows how important she places family and children when it comes to running her campaign. As I previously stated, the complete opposite as Donald Trump’s ads, which are much grittier.
Hello, my name is Haley Klepatzki and I am a junior at Longwood University. I am an English major and am considering a minor in rhetoric and professional writing. I am from Culpeper, Virginia.
In this blog I will be writing about subjects discussed in my Rhetoric and Public Culture course and hopefully exploring some topics that interest me in this area along the way. My audience is of course my peers in the class, professor, and anyone else who is interested in rhetoric and public culture.
The purpose of this blog is to share topics and subjects learned in my Rhetoric and Public Culture course. The reason why I am taking this course is to broaden my knowledge about rhetoric in public speeches and writings in case one day I find myself in a career or doing any research on the subject. I have taken technical writing in the past and enjoyed learning about the rhetoric and other formulas used in public documents and I hope to gain just as much knowledge and enjoyment out of public culture and rhetoric.