Bibliography: Caryn Ross

Annotated Bibliography


The lives of many Americans were drastically changed during and after the desegregation of public schools. One prominent case that played a role in the integration of schools is known as Davis vs. Prince Edward County (Hale-Smith). This case originated in the small town of Farmville, Virginia at the local Robert Russa Moton High School and later became a part of Brown vs. Board of Education (Turner). Three of these sources reflect on the five year gap in education that occurred in Farmville as a consequence of integrating schools (Hale-Smith, Heaton, & Turner). They all focus on citizens known as the “lost generation” and how they have been effected due to the educational hardships faced. This group of people was just one of many in the nation that were greatly impacted by this time period’s historical changes. A case very similar to Davis vs. Prince Edward County is known as Jackson vs. Rawdon (Ladino). This case took place in Tarrant County Texas, focusing on Mansfield public high school. The three students behind this case were also looking for equal education and were able to pursue this with the help of the NAACP. What the black communities had to face after their cases were won and public schools integrated proves to be very similar in many situations. They were subjected to schools completely shutting down, hate crimes and were still not accepted by white communities no matter what the laws stated. All four of these sources discuss hardships faced before integration, during integration, and the effects on communities afterwards. The court’s decision to desegregate schools was just the beginning of the struggle for many people in the United States (Ladino).

Works Cited:

Hale-Smith, Margaret E. “The Effect of Early Educational Disruption on the Belief Systems and Educational Practices of Adults: Another Look at the Prince Edward County School Closings.” Journal Negro of Education.Vol.62.No. 2 (1993): 171-189. Web. 25 March 2014.

Heaton, P. “Childhood Educational Disruption and Later Life Outcomes: Evidence from Prince Edward County.” Journal Of Human Capital, Vol 2. No.2 (2008): 154-187. Web. 25 March 2014.

Ladino, R. The Mansfield School Integration Case: Jackson vs. Rawdon. Desegregrating Texas Schools. Austin: University of Texas Press. (1996): 71-92 Print. 1 April 2014.

Turner, Kara Miles. “Both Victors and Victims: Prince Edward County, Virginia, The NAACP, and BrownVirginia Law Review.” Vol 90. No.6 (2004): 1667-1691. Web. 25 March 2014.


Chandler Tulin

Craven, A 1926, Soil Exhaustion As A Factor In The Agricultural History Of Virginia And Maryland, 1606-1860, Avery Odelle Craven .., n.p.: Urbana, The University of Illinois [c1926], Greenwood Library Catalog, EBSCOhost, viewed 13 Feb. 2014.

Farmer, Charles J. “Persistence Of Country Trade: The Failure Of Towns To Develop In Southside Virginia During The Eighteenth Century.” Journal Of Historical Geography 14.4 (1988): 331-341. America: History & Life. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.

Watson, Walter A. Notes On Southside Virginia/ By Walter A. Watson ; Edited By Mrs. Walter A. Watson Under The Direction Of Wilmer L. Hall. n.p.: Richmond : Library Board of Virginia, [1973], 1973. Greenwood Library Catalog. Web. 13 Feb. 2014.

Wood, JS. “In The Absence Of Towns – Settlement And Coutry Trade In Southside Virginia, – Farmer, Cj.” Agricultural Histroy 69.1 (n.d.): 113-114. Science Citation Index. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.


In the eighteenth century, before there was any Prince George County, there was country.  And country trade dominated country life.  The local retail and service trade operated through country stores, in particular, plantations, courthouses and ferry sites.  The tobacco economy dominated the southern states, including the site of what is now known as Farmville, Virginia.  That is not to say the tobacco businesses did not have their fair share of problems to deal with.  But, even with these issues, no urban, city-like system emerged, or even had the chance to emerge, due to the ever-present tobacco industry.  There was no chance for towns to form up on the land owned by the farmers because all available land was being used to harvest more product.  That is not just tobacco.  Cotton, rice, and indigo were all shipped back to Europe.  The dominating presence of the plantation owners and operators help shape the agricultural world of Farmville, Virginia as it was, and as it is today.  The dominating presence of plantation owners and operators needs to be remembered by people for years to come.  The addition of a museum in Farmville, Virginia, dedicated to the agricultural impacts in Southside Virginia is a must.  The museum will be a cornerstone in the education of our youth and our curious.  The area has such a rich history and it is a shame there is no museum to commemorate the source of our world today.

Chandler Tulin


Longwood University

Bachelor of Science, Psychology, Minor in Coaching (expected) 2014

201 High Street, Farmville, VA 23909

Work Experience

2014, Prince Edward High School

Assistant High School Men’s Soccer Coach

35 Eagle Dr, Farmville, VA 23901

(434) 315 – 2100

2013, Golf Course Maintenance

The Manor Golf Club

Grounds maintenance

872 Manor House Dr, Farmville, VA 23901

(434) 392 – 2244

2010 & 2012, Camp Counselor

YMCA of Delaware Camp Tockwogh

Athletics director, cabin counselor, dining hall supervisor

24370 Still Pond Neck Road, Worton, MD 21678

(410) 348 – 6000

Community Service

2011, Volunteer

Food Bank of Delaware

Packaged food, cleaned coolers, storing food


CPR certified

4H Shooting Instructor – Archery

Medtech Certification (MD)

Soccer referee certified


Dr. David Carkenord

Professor of Psychology

Jon Wolff

Merchandise Manager at Gardiners Furniture


Blog 4: Virginia State Parks

Coming from a family with southern roots and strong pride in our Virginian history, I have traveled to many Virginia State Parks throughout my lifetime. I’ve been to Bear Creek Lake State Park, High Bridge Trail State Park, Holliday Lake State Park, Lake Anna State Park, Leesylvania State Park, Mason Neck State Park, and Westmoreland State Park. High Bridge Trail has to be one of my favorite state parks, almost tied with Westmoreland State Park. All of which are booming with visitors, although some more than others. Little do people know that the more someone attends a park, the more profit the state government makes. According to Bergstrom’s study, “Economic impacts of state parks on state economies in the South,”  the more “out- of- state” dollars brought into the state parks stimulate the state economy more.

This being said, how can we increase the amount of out of state visitors to our Virginia State Parks? Especially the ones located in central and southern Virginia! Some state parks offer more than others, thus increasing profits. What can parks found in the middle of no-where offer? Solitude? Historical value? Unlocking creativity? That’s up to the visitor. The more a park has to offer, the more enticing the park will seem to people. Granted, each park is a park for a reason. It is just up to the visitor to determine how to utilize the park’s resources.

All in all, it’s a difficult task to draw in visitors to a state park the more technology takes over our lives. People need to take a moment and explore the wilderness and utilize the state parks around them. So, put the phone down and close that laptop. Go enjoy nature!



Works Cited:

Bergstrom, John C., et al. “Economic impacts of state parks on state economies in the South.” Southern Journal of Agricultural Economics 22.2 (1990): 69-77.

Virginian Tobacco


The source of this page is (a previously used website).  However, this article covers a different topic.  This article is titled Tobacco in Virginia.  The article essentially covers the migration of Nicotinia rustica (a strain of the tobacco plant that is less harsh than the native Virginia blend) from Mexico to the Virginia farmlands to England.  Tobacco has been grown in nearly every Virginia county.  The tobacco culture has evolved and given Virginia a unique identity.


Different strains of tobacco were blended together by farmers in an attempt to make their own unique flavors.  The darker colored tobacco is known as burley, and is grown in southwestern Virginia counties.  Bright tobacco, or Virginia tobacco, is grown from Northern Florida to Maryland.  Bright tobacco was first developed and sold from Virginia plantations.  The tobacco regions were referred to as ‘belts’ and each one had its own type of tobacco.  Buyers would come to auctions and sample each type before buying.


Small towns would hold warehouse auctions to sell tobacco products of the local plantations.  The auctions would be held in sequence, starting from the south and moving north.  Virginia harvest auctions ended around mid-October.  Bidders would walk up and down aisles and listen to an auctioneer chant bids.  A clerk trailing the bidders would write down the final price and toss it on the pile.  After examining the tickets, a tobacco farmer would discover if he had made any profit that year.


The only cigarette factory in Virginia is in Richmond, just south of the James River.  Phillip Morris USA, the company responsible for Marlboro cigarettes, owns the factory.  They are responsible for 44% of American cigarettes.  I only bring this up to provide some insight into the effect the tobacco industry had on Virginia.  Almost half of every cigarette produced in the USA today is produced in Richmond.  Tobacco is a global cash crop and Virginia still dominates to this day.


Our museum will hopefully highlight the importance of tobacco.  It made the USA wealthy.  It gave the USA global buyers.  It opened up a world market to be capitalized by the American people.  And it all started in Virginia.  Specifically, here in Southside Virginia.  I want the people who visit our museum to understand how important the farming of tobacco was, and still is.

Farm Innovations


The source for this blog comes from the website,  This section of the website focuses on inventors, and for my purposes, agricultural innovations.  The article is titled Agriculture and Farm Innovations.  Agricultural innovations and improvements have been happening since man began cultivating the earth.  From, simple tools, to utilizing animals, to advanced machinery, to what we know today, innovation in agriculture is part of the American identity.


In the early part of the 19th century, manufacturing began to move from the farm and home to the factories and shops.  The growth in manufacturing brought many laborsaving devices to the home.  Among those includes the iron plow with interchangeable parts, steel plows (after the iron, much more resilient), threshing machines, grain elevator, and the first tractors (steam powered).


With the addition of the plow, pulled by horses, the agriculture, not only in Virginia, but also across America, took a huge leap forward.  The growth in production and the improved means of transportation made it possible to export huge amounts of product never before thought possible.  This larger supply made for a larger demand.  And with the new technologies, everything was possible.


Now, even though Virginia mostly harvested tobacco, the invention of the cotton gin shortly before the turn of the century had huge agricultural impact.  The introduction of the cotton gin made way for other mechanical improvements to lighten the load of the farmers.  When I say farmers, I mean the plantation owners.  Slaves did all of the fieldwork.  The introduction of these new technologies simply made it cheaper for the plantation owners to produce more cash crops.


Another innovator of the 19th century was George Washington Carver.  Most people know him for his many uses for the peanut plant.  He also provided one of the greatest contributions to farming in the south.  He introduced the idea of crop rotation.  Today, this idea seems obvious.  Rotating the crops allows the soil to regain the nutrients lost during harvesting.  But, before Carver, no farmers were using this technique.


A lot of people do not think about farming as getting up on the tractor, harvester, or reaper and just directing the machine through the fields.  But, before we had those machines, farming was done by hand.  An entire nation was fed this way.  The importance of these innovations is often lost on many people.  Our museum hopes to remind everyone how important these innovations were for Virginias and Americans alike.

Tobacco Plantations


The source of this blog is the website.  This article is broken up into three parts: Tobacco and Staple Agriculture, Tobacco Plantations, and Staple Crops and Regionalism.  The first section, Tobacco and Staple Agriculture, goes into detail about the colonists’ adaptation of tobacco plants into a cash crop.  The Jamestown settlers were the first to recognize the value and capitalize on the tobacco crop.


Tobacco Plantations is the second section, and it talks about the emergence of plantations all over Virginia.  Tobacco is a labor-intensive crop, requiring the entire year to harvest.  The plantations in Virginia were all based on the same two rules: cheap land and cheap labor.  Virginia imported a huge number of slaves to word the fields for free and increase profits.  In the 1730s, the governor of Virginia finally placed laws regarding tobacco into effect.  Before then, tobacco shipping had no regulation laws.


Staple Crops and Regionalism is the third and final section, and it talks about the diversity of economic systems throughout the United States.  The southern states invested heavily in slavery-worked plantations for cash crops.  The poor climate in the north, coupled with the growing sympathy for the slaves, led the northern states to expand their endeavors into manufacturing.   Virginia was caught somewhere in the middle, with its southern counties staying true to the agricultural ways (Southside, VA) and the northern counties moving into manufacturing.


Virginia almost did not join the Confederacy.  They were hesitant until shots were fired at Fort Sumter, and they joined the Confederacy.  Not all of southern Virginia grew tobacco.  It was not until the introduction of the railroad in the 1850s that southwest Virginia began growing tobacco.  They utilized slave labor and began expanding plantations into that region.


The addition of the railroad made transportation of crops much easier and cost-efficient across the country.  But, the biggest impact was in the south.  The farmers could get their crops all across the country and out to the ports much quicker, leading to much more money.  More money meant expansion of the plantations.


Our museum is going to make this transformation from settlers planting tobacco, to plantations growing cash crops, to the railroad making it easier to transport cash crops across the country, simple to understand.  The Commonwealth of Virginia had the first colony in the New World.  Their economic growth in agriculture is a cornerstone in American history.

Agriculture in Southern Piedmont Virginia 2014-04-18 10:08:35


The title of this article is Our Founding Farmers: Virginia’s Agricultural History.  It comes from the website FarmFlavor, a website more commonly known for recipes and DIY ideas with local produce form Virginia farms.  However, this article takes a different direction, highlighting the roots (excuse the pun) of agriculture in the Commonwealth and the people who popularized some of the crops developed in the beginning.


Tobacco was immediately huge.  The early colonists realized the value of the tobacco plants and it was one of the first products sent back from the New World.  The introduction of tobacco into the world market made Virginia an agricultural powerhouse from the 17th century onward.  The abundance of wild life coupled with the help of the Native Americans allowed the settlers to persevere and eventually excel.


One of the earliest agricultural influences in Virginia was John Rolfe, the husband of Pocahontas.  With the help of the Powhatan tribesmen, Rolfe was able to experiment with different varieties of the tobacco crop.  His early experimentation is the base of tobacco in Southside Virginia and the rest of the Commonwealth.


Another famous agricultural innovator was also an innovator of democracy.  The first president, George Washington, spent a lot of time and energy researching crops at his Mount Vernon home.  Coming from a wealthy farm, Washington knew he had the means to experiment with advances in agriculture.  He documented crop plantings, and worked tirelessly to improve production and increase profits.  Washington researched 60 different crops on his 8,000-acre estate.


Washington was not the only president to have a green thumb.  Thomas Jefferson, America’s 3rd president, used his Monticello estate to experiment as well.  He converted his 3,000-acre tobacco plantation to grains, garden vegetables, and fruit.  The combined effort of all these men advanced Virginia’s agriculture into the 1800s.




Our Founding Farmers: Virginia’s Agricultural History

Colonial Life


The source for this blog is   I personally do not agree much with the name of this website, but their information is well represented.  The article is titled Colonial Life.  The author breaks the information up by using commonly asked questions.  I am going to focus on three I think pertain to our museum plan.  First, how did planters earn a living?  Second, did farmers raise any other types of crops in Virginia?  Third, what kinds of animals were found on farms in Virginia?  I like the way this site is organized.  When we organize our displays in the museum, we will also be be organizing our information in this style.


During this time, not many of the residents of Virginia were wealthy landowners.  About 200,000 of the people living in Virginia were enslaved African Americans.  Most of the farmers owned small plots of lands, and their main objective was survival.  If they were lucky, farmers were able to save up and buy more land.  They grew some type of cash crop, for most farmers in Southside Virginia this was tobacco.  The poorer farmers often had less than 5 slaves, and many could only afford 1 or 2.


In addition to growing tobacco, Virginian farmers would also grow beans, peas, carrots, and cabbage to eat.  They would also grow grains, such as wheat, oats, and corn.  Grains were beneficial substitutes because they required fewer workers and did not deplete the nutrients in the soil like tobacco.  Corn was especially important as it served many uses, including food for humans, animal feed, and household instruments (fodder, mattress cushioning, etc.).


Virginian farmers had many different animals living with them on their land.  This included oxen, horses, pigs, cows, sheep, chickens, guinea fowl, turkeys, and deer.  Oxen and horses were used to pull carts and wagons, plow fields, and carry crops.  Pigs were used for meat, lard, and soap.  Cows provided beef to eat and milk to make butter and cheese.  Sheep’s wool was spun into yarn.  Chickens, guinea fowl, and turkeys provided eggs, meat, and feathers.  Deer were hunted to feed the families.


The life of a farmer was not glamorous.  It was not fun.  The farmers in Southside Virginia had a tough life.  They worked tirelessly just to get by.  The museum will hopefully be able to convey these hardships to the people who view the displays.  Southside Virginians of today should be very grateful of the hard work and dedication put forth by their ancestors.


The way this website is constructed really stood out to me.  The information is well organized and easy to read.  I hope to adopt the same concept when constructing the displays for our museum.  The displays will have a large, bold heading with a common question or idea followed by relevant information and pictures.  This will make it easier for the children to understand the message we want to convey.

Rural Life in Virginia

The Virginia Historical Society has a website (cited at the end of this post) that ran a story titled Rural Life in Virginia.  Our planned proposal for a new museum in Farmville is going to remind the people who visit what impact agriculture has had, and continues to have, on life in Southside Virginia.  The name Farmville almost speaks for itself as to the impact farming had on the lives of its residents.  Naming a place ‘Farmville’ suggests the main reason this very place exists is because of farming.


Rural Life in Virginia is a short article with a lot of information.  It details the changes in agriculture that eventually shaped Virginia itself.  The first change came with the Emancipation Proclamation that freed the slaves.  The second change was the growing popularity of cigarettes.  The third change came from the development of transportation networks and technologies.  The depressions that ravaged the country had a huge impact on everyone, especially farmers.  The article wraps up with World War I, and the impact it had on farmers all over the United States.


With the freeing of the slaves, Abraham Lincoln changed the face of America, and the face of farming.  No longer did slaves run huge plantations.  However, these new freemen did not have any money for their own farms, and landowners still needed their crops tended.  This led to sharecropping.  Landowners would provide seed, fertilizer, provisions, as well as a place to live.  In exchange, the tenants would plant, raise and harvest the crops, and also care for the livestock.


The chief crop in Virginia was tobacco.  And luckily for Virginians, tobacco grows really well here.  That fact, coupled with mass production of cigarettes, gave farmers in Southside a cash crop to thrive around.  Cigarettes used a bright-leaf strain of tobacco that grew exceptionally in the Southside counties bordering North Carolina (Pittsylvania, Halifax, etc.).


Because of the ever-growing demand of American products, transportation alternatives were sought after and eventually developed.  The introduction of the steam engine made the steam ship and railroad possible.  The railroad in particular had a huge impact on Southside Virginia.  Farming became a much larger enterprise and Southside Virginia became a place people would talk about.