Thank You For Smoking

The most prominent rhetorical techniques in the movie, Thank You For Smoking, were hyperbole, disinterest, and re-framing. Re-framing was the technique Nick Naylor used most often. When Naylor encountered opposition to tobacco usage, he would turn the argument into something else that was critical of his opponent. For example, in a conversation with the Vermont Senator, Naylor turned the discussion of the health side effects of tobacco into a conversation against the health side effects of Vermont cheddar.  He did this again by criticizing the hypocrisy of the senator demanding the end of the tobacco farmer on the same day as criticizing the end of the American farmer. Although the original conversation was not about the senator’s campaign, Naylor used this to show the inconsistency of the senator’s platform. Re-framing is a means of distracting the audience from the real issue at hand, which is Naylor’s case, is the health defects of cigarettes. In order to re-frame the issue, Naylor also utilized the technique of kairos, which relies on seizing the moment at which people are most easily persuaded.  He uses kairos simultaneously as re-framing because he understood when and how to distract to then push his own agenda.

Disinterest was also used as a persuasive technique. As a job obligation, Naylor had to persuade the aging Marblo front man to take a suitcase full of money as a bribe to stop public criticism of the cigarette company and he did this using disinterest. Naylor acted like he was on the Marblo man’s side. He said all the possible things the man could do with the money, but Nick claimed he knew the man would do the right thing and not take the money, even though he knew the Marblo man would. Naylor distanced himself from any interest in the man’s choice because he claimed that it would be good for him to donate the money because if he took it, then the Marblo man would have to stop publically trashing the cigarette company. Naylor acted like he did not want the man to stop speaking out against the company and then “accidently” dropped the suitcase so the man would see how much money was at stake. Naylor knew the Marblo man would take the money, but by acting like he wouldn’t, he was even more persuasive to the Marblo man because he realized how much he could benefit from the money, even if that mean keeping quiet.

Hyperbole was also used in the movie. Naylor overly exaggerated his own talents in persuasion. Such quotes such as, “You know that guy who can get any girl? I’m him, on crack” or “Michael Jordan plays ball. I talk”. Naylor’s confidence had a real effect on how many people he was able to persuade and distract against the effects of cigarettes. Hyperbole and confidence affected how he talked to his audience. He even told his son, “you never need to be right if you know how to argue”. Hyperbole, as well as disinterest and re-framing, allowed Naylor to argue successfully in order to distract his audience from the damaging effects of smoking.

Thank you for smoking analysis

Thank you for smoking

when using extreme examples use hyperbole to make them seem less extreme.

“argue correctly your never wrong”

When starting with a question to get peoples attention, it can be an effective method to show your expertise.

  • Question expertise when someone tries to disprove your point. Ex. Cellphones cause cancer. According to what studies? Who did the studies? Is it 100% true

Statistics can be used to show knowledge, and a  good pathway to the real argument.

  • Play the part look assertive, know your audience

By imposing your expertise quickly and precisely, you are able to talk freely. This allows you to talk with confidence, and having people think that what ever you have say is based on knowledge and not just assumptions.

Find how to visually appeal the audience, it’s easier to convince someone who already has a positive outlook of you as person, even if the topic is controversial. “play the part, if your talking about neuro science and you’re a doctor, maybe wear your doctor’s robe. Don’t be extreme though if you’re an astronaut don’t wear your space gear.

When arguing, do not just think how your arguments will affect the person directly talking to, but people who are listening potential allies. This was the example when they talked about chocolate or vanilla being the best flavor. He didn’t make the point that vanilla is the best, but dispproved that choclet is.

Well planned actions, can have a positive on your audience specially if the actions is done for shock value. Keeping the audience focused on a key point. The spin he used when he got kidnapped.

A simple tactic to discredit people, is laughing. Gets attention, may stop the person talking. Which gives space to bring a counter attack to the person you are arguing against.

If needed/opportunity for appeal, spin a bad situation into a good one. Even if it’s a “one in a life time thing”.

Constant, ill representations of some one you oppose helps discredit their validity regardless of how true they are. “public bashing”

When faced against clear facts, agree to them but diminish its attack. By comparing it to other examples, (cheese and cigarettes) by doing this you can show that, what you are promoting is an acceptable product because there are others like it that have no sanctions.

In thank you for smoking when talking about the harms of smoking and the labeling, he uses education as the big issue to make informed decisions not just pictures. This is effective because his comparison with cheese.

 

Resistance on the Riverfront

I’ve defined my solution to the James River power-line problem to vote in favor of the alternate route instead of the originally proposed one. It would, instead of spreading across the river, cut through the wetlands along the coast of the river up to the Chickahominy switching station. However, many people would be in opposition of this idea, as not only is it significantly more expensive, it is longer in length and impacts the John Smith trail and the surrounding wetlands.

Of those in opposition, Dominion is extremely against this alternative route; they claim it to be considerably worse in comparison to the first suggested route. This chart, in Hearing Examiner Alexander Skirpan’s final report on August 29th 2013, he summarizes the impacts of both suggested routes:

Hearing Examiner’s report; page 11, August 29th, 2013

The chart shows that the alternate, which I am for, is extremely outrageous economically and environmentally. The difference in cost and land consumption alone makes their argument for the original plan to feel like the better option. Therefore, any number of taxpayers and conservationists could also oppose this alternate solution.

Another party that can be assumed in opposition would be environmentalists in an attempt to prevent Virginia wetlands from being scarred more by industrialization. Where the original route could possibly ruin the James by destroying its sturgeon population and kicking up muck from under the sand, cutting through Virginia’s wetlands could also equally impose on the environment. Real estate owners will also be affected; just because they don’t own waterfront property doesn’t mean that the homes in the second suggested area will not lose value.

As a resident of the Historic Triangle area, I can only do so much. I can post comments in the Last Word section of the local paper, attempt to make the problem more known at an expense to myself, or completely disregard it and leave the big boys to decide. Where Dominion has its name and its established empire, I have an associate’s degree in Social Sciences and youth. The best I can do is to appeal to our local paper enough to perhaps persuade interest in the topic, and hope that the State Corporation Commission makes the right decision.

Works Cited:

“Document List For Case Number : PUE-2012-00029.”SCC Docket Search. State Corporation       Commission, 25 Oct. 2013. Web. 1 Nov 2013. <http://docket.scc.state.va.us/CyberDocs/Libraries/Default_Library/Common/frameviewdsp.asp?doc=133193&lib=CASEWEBP_LIB&mimetype=application/pdf&rendition=native>.

Why could this not work? (#8)

My plan could potentially work, and it would be great if it did. In the end there’s basically three groups that have to agree, SGA, the office of fraternity and sorority life and Longwood officer such as Tim Pierson. The SGA usually sides with other authoritative positions, so it comes down to convincing the office of Fraternity and Sorority life. This could be tricky since at one point, they were complete trying to kill all off campus Fraternities and Sororities. Also if this plan were to be enacted it would mean more work for this office, they would have to process paper work about what the Fraternities and Sororities have been up to or were up to. It would mean time processing what level to put the organizations on, it would mean time for them to revise the plan. Those are some extra task that they will have to take on, but probably not the most challenging. The most challenging task they will have, would be to make sure that no new “Fraternities and Sororities” pop left and right without being an extension of a national group. Longwood already has many Fraternities and Sororities. If more pop up every year because it’s easy to become recognized, the office of Fraternity and Sorority life would have to expand. This cost comes at the expense of Longwood or they could raise the fees that on campus organizations have to pay, so that could be another set of people that could resist the plan. The plan could be modified by the office of Fraternity and Sorority life, but then we would have to convince figure heads like Tim Pierson that this is a good idea. Tim Pierson has worked at the school for a while, and has seen what other students in the past have done on these off campus Fraternities and/or Sororities. He does not directly work with this off campus organizations, so his views might be antiquated and hard to change. For this proposal to work there has to be a way to showTim Pierson how this organizations, have changed and how the mentality has changed. Ways to do that would be to convince the office of Fraternity and Sorority life to have a conference with delegates from each organization, Tim and Wolfgang. Another way could be showing evidence of the change in mentality, police reports could be beneficial if they have decreased in the past five years. Rotunda articles talking about these organizations in a well regard would help too. Finally if we can get students to vote or rally for this plan it would force all of the stakeholders to highly consider the proposal. After all the University is here to serve it’s students, Having students sign a petition, or even gather together protesting for the change would put pressure for actions to be taken. The forces of resistance are pretty strong, but not impossible to overcome. All it would take is persistence and good ethics when doing so, professionalism from all the organizations would be key for this to succeed along with collaboration.

Resisting Sex Education

The word resist means, to withstand, strive against, or oppose. (dictionary.com) In context this means if someone was against a certain thing then they would resist it or go agasint that particular situation. In the case of sex education, being that there are two types that I am talking about, more than likely some people are going to resist one more than the other. Since I am fighting for comprehensive education to be taught in schools, I am going to talk about the reasons why people may resist the option for this type of sex education to be allowed in schools.

First of all, the people that would resist the change from abstinence-only sex education to comprehensive sex education would be the teenagers parents or people who do not believe all areas containing to sex should be taguht in schools. The reasons for this would be because, in the parents mind, they want to keep their child away from knowing all the aspects relating to sex for as long as they can; the parents want their child to only know about the basics of sex. Religious values might also play a role when it comes to sex education. When dealing with religious beliefs more than likely they believe that they should remain a virgin until marriage. In this case a parent might resist comprehensive sex education due to the fact that it goes into detail, condoms, birth control, STD’s, etc. These were the main issues I could find of why parents would resist comprehensive sex education. I could not find much on money, I know that the goverment pays for sex education so the schools  have to adbide by the goverments rules. I found that more and more schools are starting to teach about sexually transmitted diseases, which goes along with the comprehsive education curriculum. With that said, I do not see where the government would be an issue.

Hopefully there is not much resisting with the comprehensive sex education program because it truly is what is best for the students and we should all want what is best for them.

Farmers Resistance to a Solution (Blog #8)

Farmers are an important part of the pollution in the Chesapeake Bay.

                 My solution for the pollution issue in the Chesapeake Bay, due to agricultural runoff, is to incorporate cost effective conversations practices to all the farms in Virginia and Maryland that we possibly can. These practices are streamside buffers, stream side fencing, nutrient management plans, continuous no-till, and cover crops. My solutions take lots of time and money to efficiently enforce but without them pollution will continue to occur. Another issue with putting my solution into force is the farmers complying with these solutions.

Farmers bring the resistance in this issue. Their resistance is based on a few things. One is they believe they won’t produce the same amount of crops as they do with chemical fertilizers. Two continuous no till and cover crops also produce a different amount of crops or it could harm their business in general. The farmers resistance is more of a moral resistance rather than political. There also can be other resistance to this idea coming from environmentalists or land owners in Virginia near streams and rivers. This is because the fencing and buffers add a change to the land and this change might not be accepted by all because it doesn’t keep the area as visually appealing as before. However, this resistance could easily be changed if many different people come together to persuade and convince them how much this will help the pollution problem in the bay.

I believe farmers are the most resistant to these solutions, this because these solutions could affect their business and their lives. Like most business owners, the success of their business is what matters most to them and other factors are pushed aside. If locals of Virginia Beach and Chesapeake Bay enthusiasts come together then there is a better chance to persuade more farmers to implement these practices. Resistance needs to be diminished between farmers and the solution practices in order for pollution to be decreased.

Resistors to the Eagle Backpack Program (Blog 8)

The main resistors of the Eagle Backpack Program will be the community members and organizations that will have to provide the funds and donations for the program. The local churches will oppose this solution to the hungry children in the county’s educational system because they already provide funds, donations, and many volunteers to help out other hunger-related organizations in the Farmville community such as FACES and Meals on Wheels.

The United Way of Prince Edward County is a non-profit organization who, “is concerned about the problems faced by those in the community and is committed to help find solutions” (**United Way of Prince Edward County**). The United Way will be supportive of the solution, but they will also resist it because they are a big organization working with a lot of communities, and they will want their money to be used for solutions that they know will make an impact. They may also be resistant to the program because they may have to work with the program on finding or providing a space that can serve as the program headquarters and help with finding a distribution place within the schools.

The Prince Edward County School Board, the school system, and the food service department could all be considered resistors of the Eagle Backpack Program. They may be resistant to the program at first if they initially believe that they will have to fund the program but then this will go away once they become aware that this is not the case. They will be resistant to this solution because they will be worried about the confidentiality of the students who are participating in the program, not wanting them to be singled out among their peers. They may also be resistant to the program because they will have to work with the program coordinators to provide an area where the backpacks can be distributed.

The last main resistor of the Eagle Backpack Program solution would be the members of the Farmville community who will have to help support, fund, and donate in order to keep the program running. These community members, including parents of Prince Edward County students, may resist the program because they are already providing a lot of money, donations, and support to the school and other organizations in the county. They may also resist the solution due to the amount of volunteers and volunteer hours it will require to collect the food, unpack and sort the food at the headquarters, packing the many backpacks for distribution, and finally distributing the backpacks on the day the students receive them. These volunteer hours will require many community members take time away from work, their weekends, and even their own families to help out the Eagle Backpack Program.

Without the Eagle Backpack Program, the children in the Prince Edward County Schools will continue to go hungry on the weekends and during short-term breaks from school. The children will continue to be denied their full educational experience because they are being directly affected by hunger, causing them to loose attention and not focus on learning. As a child continues down this path, it will become harder and harder to pull them out of the downward spiral because they have missed so much information and quality education from not being able to focus. Virginia is very big on standardized testing, the Standards of Learning (or SOLs), and holding schools, counties, and districts accountable for the test scores. With the effects that hunger has on students, Prince Edward County will see a decline in these test scores, resulting in repercussions from the state.

Works Cited

“United Way of Prince Edward County.” United Way, n.d. Web. 5 Nov 2013. <http://uwprinceedward.org/About_Us.php>.

Resistance-Blog 8

The group that will resistance and resent my solution is most is Longwood University.  It is going to be extra work on the university not to mention if they do send a check out to the student at the end of their career at Longwood that will be money that they are loosing because as of right now they are keeping that money.  I think that the school will resist mostly because of the money they will be loosing and the extra work it causes for administration.  One benefit this would have on the university is because it will benefit the reputation of Longwood.  If Longwood does implement this policy of giving the unused bonus dollars back then Longwood would be perceived by the community and students in a positive way.  Right now, I feel like the school system is who is currently responsible for this problem because they could have changed the policy but this is why I need to work hard to convince them to change it.  They have a lot of influence over the policies for meal plans because they obviously have the final say what goes and what doesn’t. If i want to convince Longwood to change their minds about giving the unused bonus dollars back to the student at the end of their career at Longwood, I am going to have to really show them how much it could help them too by building up their reputation even more.  I think it is a possible change because I know Longwood is a good school and they are very good about helping out their students with anything they need.

So Why Hasn’t This Been Done Already?

Blog Post #8

The topic of depression and suicide can be very controversial. Many people believe that depression and suicide are serious problems, but others do not believe that depression is a real illness; instead they view it as a sign of weakness. A depression awareness and suicide prevention program would help to teach those individuals who do not understand depression and do not believe that it is a real problem that it is in fact real and affects many people. A depression awareness and suicide prevention program is needed in Virginia pubic high schools, but cannot happen as long as there is resistance to the program, as well as depression itself.

One of the strongest points of resistance that the implementation of a required awareness and prevention program would run into would be resistance from parents who are not educated in the subject themselves. An awareness and prevention program would be implemented through health classes that each student attends. Parents who do not believe that depression is a serious or real problem might be opposed to their student participating in the program and think of it as a waste of time. These parents could then write to or petition the school board to try and shut the program down. This particular problem is one that continues with generations. Parents do not believe that depression is a real problem and do not receive education on it, such as the aforementioned program, so their opinions are never changed. They then go on to teach their children the same beliefs that they have about depression and as long as there continues to be a lack of education in the area the cycle will continue. This program could solve the problem but will never get a chance if the opposition from parents is too strong.

Aside from the resistance by parents, the next level of resistance will most likely be institutional. The institutional resistance may come from health teachers or from policy makers. Health teachers may be resistant because they would have to add more to their curriculum and teach more in the same amount of time they were allotted before. They would also have to teach a subject that can be a pretty sensitive for some students, which might make the teachers uncomfortable. Policy makers might be resistant because they would have to design and implement the program and make sure that it is working properly and being taught properly. They might also be concerned because they do not want to be held liable if they implement an awareness and prevention program and then something bad happens to a student anyway. In this case a parent could get upset and blame them for making the program and teaching it to students but it not being affective because of what happened to their student. The final aspect of institutional resistance might be resistance concerning money. Although this program would not require a large amount of money because it is not a physical project such as constructing a new building, it would require some money in order to pay the person who designs the program and to provide any materials (such as new books) to schools. Some people may feel as though this money could be better spent elsewhere or go towards a bigger project.

Although there are several types of resistance facing this project it is still worth considering. This resistance can be combatted and an effective program can be put in place that will help students to better understand depression and suicide, and hopefully lower suicide rates in Virginia public high schools.