Did you know that ‘Transvestite’ originated in 1910 from the German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld, who would later develop the Berlin Institute where the very first ‘sex change’ operations took place. ‘Transsexual’ was not coined until 1949, ‘transgender‘ not until 1971, and ‘trans’ (a very British term) not until 1996. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first use of ‘androgyne’ was recorded in 1552, but it has only been in the last 10 years that people have claimed it for themselves to describe a state of being in-between, or having both genders. (Whittle).
Also, in 1966 A riot erupts after police attempt to arrest rowdy drag queens at Gene Compton’s cafeteria in San Francisco. Protesters break windows, throw furniture, and burn down a newsstand; one throws coffee in an officer’s face. The action becomes the subject of the 2005 documentary Screaming Queens. This event is considered to be the beginning of the transgender rights movement.
In 1972 Sweden becomes the first country in the world allow unmarried transsexual citizens to legally change their sex; the government will even pay for it. Panama would become the second country to legalize transsexuality, in 1975 and also in 1975 Minneapolis becomes the first city to offer legal protections for transgender people after revising its human rights ordinance to ban discrimination against them. Today, at least 92 jurisdictions have trans-friendly measures on the books.
In 2001 San Francisco becomes the first U.S. city to offer its employees health coverage for transgender-related medical needs. The city will fund sex-reassignment surgery and related treatments up to $75,000, according to the mayor’s LGBT liaison.
2003: Activists found the National Center for Transgender Equality, a nonprofit group whose work includes educating members of Congress about transgender issues.
2007: Both houses of Congress pass the Matthew Shepard Act, which would expand the existing federal hate-crimes law to include sexual orientation and Bender identity. The same day, Rep. Barney Frank introduces a new version of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act that no longer protects transgender people, sparking a controversy that continues even after the bill passes the House in November (Wenzel).
Colleges and universities seem to fall into one of three categories according to Brett Genny Beemyn and Jessica Pettitt: 1. Most do not recognize or serve the needs of transgender students on campus. 2. Some are developing services, policies, and practices that are trans-supportive 3. Very few have created non-discrimination statements and other trans-supportive polices (4). These two authors highlight different aspects of Transgender issues and policies that colleges across the country do and do not have or participate in as of 2006 and according to the Transgender Law and Institute as of today 621 colleges and universities have Nondiscrimination Policies that Include Gender Identity/Expression and there are 95 college and universities that have gender-inclusive housing, meaning a student can have a roommate of any gender (http://www.transgenderlaw.org). More and more colleges and universities are developing trans-supportive policies and changes and a lot of these have occurred mostly in the last 10 years.
“A Colleges/Universities.” TLPI: College and University Policies. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Feb. 2013.
Beemyn, Brett Genny, and Jessica Pettitt. “”How Have Trans-Inclusive Non-Discrimination Policies Changed Institutions?”” GLBT Campus Matters (2006): n. pag. Online. 3 Feb. 2013.
Wenzel, Ryan. “A Transgender History.” Advocate 999 (2007): 40. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.
Whittle, Prof Stephen. “A Brief History of Transgender Issues.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 02 June 2010. Web. 04 Feb. 2013.